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how to start a bonsai tree from seed

Growing Bonsai From Seed

4.9 out of 5.0 stars on Amazon

“Upon finding that I work as a professional bonsai artist, many people will remark that they once had a bonsai, but it died and with some regret, they gave up”.

Based on the Bonsai Basics section of the hugely successful Bonsai4me.com website and an e-book of the same name, ‘Bonsai Basics: The Foundations of Bonsai’, written and developed over the past 15 years is out now!

All copies are signed by the author.

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Seed can be very easily obtained from many species of tree that can be found growing in fields, gardens and by the roadside. Many species of tree such as Oaks, Maples and Beech have instantly recognizable seedpods that once opened reveal large quantities of seed that can be used to create large numbers of new plants.

There are also many retail outlets that sell ‘bonsai seed’. It should be noted that there is no such thing as ‘special seed for bonsai’, bonsai are created from ordinary trees not ‘special bonsai varieties’. Packets of ‘bonsai seed’ are generally very overpriced and can be misleading, they simply contain seeds from trees that are suitable for use as bonsai.

Some species of trees are relatively easy to grow from seed, Maple species, Black Pine, Scots Pine, Zelkovas, Beech and Larch are all species that are easy to germinate from seed. Others such as White Pine, Hornbeam and Needle Junipers can be more difficult.

Though seed is very cheap and easy to obtain, it does have some drawbacks when propagating plants. It is a very slow process; seeds can take many months to germinate, some species can take a number of seasons for their seed to germinate and many species need exacting conditions to begin the process of germination. Many types of seed require periods of cold or mild temperatures or wet weather before they will begin the process of germination.

When seeds have been successfully germinated, young seedlings will need a number of seasons of vigorous growth before they have thick enough trunks to warrant their use as bonsai. Typically, a tree grown from seed will take a further 4 or 5 years of vigorous growth to achieve a trunk just an 1″ across. There are also many species of trees that readily cross pollinate and their seed will nearly always produce hybridized plants which may not display all the qualities of the parent plant.

However, growing a tree from seed and watching it mature into a bonsai is an experience that every serious enthusiast dreams about and trees that are grown from seed, from their very inception, are a reflection of their owners patience.

GERMINATING SEED

The ability of a seed to germinate depends on a number of factors; the quality of the seed or even whether it is still viable, the time of year, surrounding temperatures and importantly the temperature the seed has been previously exposed to, the manner of collection and storage, and importantly the matter of individual species’ dormancy requirements.

It is preferable to try to use fresh seed that has ripened within the past growing season; some trees seed can have a relatively short life span compared to flower or vegetable seed and old seed may not be viable any more.

Seeds are biologically programmed to germinate in their native habitat when growing conditions are at their most favourable. For most species, this means that seeds that are released in late Summer and Autumn, go dormant for the period of the Winter and then germinate when the soil temperatures rise in the Spring. This dormancy means that seeds don’t germinate immediately in Autumn as they fall from the tree; this would result in young seedlings that would be killed by the first frosts of winter. By germinating in Spring, a young seedling has an entire season to grow and strengthen in preparation for its first winter as a young sapling.

This is a good example of why it is important to understand the need to try to imitate the natural growing conditions of an individual species to prompt it to germinate. The easiest species to germinate are nearly always those that are found locally; by virtue of the fact that these species are able to reproduce by seed also means that your local climate is favourable for germinating its seed. If a tree is able to germinate its seeds by simply dropping them onto the ground, so can you.

Unless described otherwise in the Species Guides, seed can be sown in Autumn straight into a prepared seed bed or a pot outside, the effect of repeated freezing and thawing through the winter, followed by the gentle warming of the soil and increased light in Spring will break the seeds dormancy and it should germinate. This process of breaking dormancy is known as stratification.

Stratification can be artificially created with the help of a refrigerator. This can be necessary when trying to germinate seeds out of season, seeds that have been stored inside over winter or seeds of species that will not germinate naturally in your local climate.
Seed should be soaked in water for around 5 or 6 hours and then placed in a damp plastic bag at room temperature for 3 or 4 days. Seeds that are seen to soak when soaking in water are still viable for germination; any floating seeds are empty shells and will not germinate, these should be removed. Care should be taken with very small seed as they can all end up floating as a result of surface tension!

The plastic bag of seed is then placed in the bottom of a refrigerator where the temperature is around 4В°C. The bag is then slowly moved up the shelves in the refrigerator over a period of two weeks until it is placed on the top shelf where the temperature is just above freezing. Over a second two-week period the bag of seed is then slowly moved back down to the bottom of the refrigerator. The seeds can then be removed from the refrigerator and sown.

>>Growing Bonsai From Seed: Page 2 of 2

©Harry Harrington 2019. All articles and images by Harry Harrington unless otherwise indicated. Use of Text or Images contained within this website is strictly prohibited without the express permission of Harry Harrington.

Large Website located in the UK, Bonsai4me offers Bonsai Art, Species guides for Bonsai trees, Bonsai galleries and Bonsai Techniques.

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how to lace weed

“Smoking Wet”

Abstract

Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as “wet” or “fry,” has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries.

We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked “wet” marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities.

To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered.

Numerous reports on alternative forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be found in multiple media forums. 1–5 Several reports indicate the increased use of marijuana cigarettes, the ingredients of which have been tainted in a potentially harmful fashion. 1–4 This altered form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as “wet,” “illy,” or “fry,” was first reported in the 1970s and can now be procured rather readily. “Wet” cigarettes are conventional marijuana cigarettes that have been dipped into various fluids or laced with additional substances. The precise ingredients involved in this augmentation process may or may not be known by the end user. The most frequently reported method involves the dipping of marijuana into embalming fluid or formaldehyde that has been mixed with phencyclidine (PCP). 3

The exact origin of tainted marijuana cigarettes is unknown. The “wet” cigarettes reported on in the 1970s were probably laced with PCP. At that time, PCP was referred to by marijuana users and dealers as “embalming fluid.” It is postulated that drug dealers subsequently and mistakenly began using genuine embalming fluid to augment marijuana cigarettes, and that this has led to the current formulation with embalming fluid, PCP, or both. 3

Cannabis is not typically considered to be a drug that causes respiratory failure. However, exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes potentially precipitates organ failure, including respiratory failure. Exposure to PCP can increase the prevalence of life-threatening events. 3,5 Other reports about tainted marijuana cigarettes chiefly discuss their impact on the central nervous system. The effects include hallucinations, disorientation, impaired coordination, paranoia, sexual disinhibition, and visual disturbances. 3–5 We present the cases of 2 young adults who presented with severe respiratory failure—thought to be related to “wet cigarette” exposure—that necessitated therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

Case Reports

Patient 1

A 27-year-old woman presented at another hospital with respiratory failure and seizures. Her medical history included chronic depression and alcohol and marijuana abuse, but no prior seizures. After transfer to our hospital, she was placed on mechanical ventilation at a low tidal volume, in accordance with the Acute Respiratory Distress Network (ARDSNet) protocol. 6 Drug-screening tests were positive for THC and PCP. Chest radiographs revealed bilateral, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Computed tomograms showed areas of diffuse consolidation as well as ground-glass attenuation with superimposed inter- and intralobular septal thickening. Empiric antibiotic therapy for presumed pneumonia was started. However, investigations for infectious and noninfectious causes, including a bronchoalveolar lavage, yielded negative results. Echocardiograms showed normal cardiac function and structure. During the next 10 days, progressive respiratory failure with persistent bilateral, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates developed ( Fig. 1 ) despite attempted rescue therapies, including neuromuscular blockade, open lung ventilation, inhaled prostacyclin, and high-frequency-oscillation ventilation. Refractory hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure (Murray Lung Score, 7 4/4/2/3 = 3.25), along with evidence of distributive shock, prompted the implementation of venoarterial ECMO. The patient’s tidal volumes were 4 cc/kg with plateau pressures ranging from 40 to 45 cm H2O just before ECMO was initiated. Despite the low tidal volume and ECMO support, the patient’s course was complicated by recurrent pneumothorax and by a hemothorax that necessitated thoracotomy. After 35 days, she was weaned from ECMO support and was again placed on conventional mechanical ventilation. Tracheostomy enabled the patient to breathe room air, and she was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation unit 65 days after her initial hospital admission. After being discharged from the rehabilitation unit, she was able to resume all activities of daily life.

Fig. 1 Patient 1. Chest radiograph at the time of ECMO cannulation shows diffuse pulmonary infiltrates bilaterally.

Six months after the patient’s initial hospitalization, she underwent pulmonary-function testing to evaluate her severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Spirometry revealed mild deficiencies in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (60%), in total lung capacity (TLC) (62%), and in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (70%). A chest radiograph revealed unilateral basilar scarring, consistent with the location of her recurrent pneumothoraces and hemothorax.

It was learned that the patient had been in her usual state of health before the initial hospital admission. On the night before admission, she had smoked marijuana cigarettes that had been dipped in PCP and embalming fluid.

Patient 2

A 20-year-old man with no past medical problems presented at another hospital with disorientation and hypoxemic respiratory failure. He was intubated and hemodynamically stable upon his transfer to our hospital. Chest radiographs revealed bilateral, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Echocardiograms showed normal cardiac function and structure. Drug-screening tests were positive for THC. Investigations for infectious and noninfectious causes yielded negative results. Bronchoscopic evaluation showed mildly edematous airways and yielded a neutrophil-predominant lavage. Ventilation at low tidal volume was used, in accordance with the ARDSNet protocol. 6 During the next 11 days, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure (Murray Lung Score, 7 3/4/3/4 = 3.5) and persistent bilateral, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates developed ( Fig. 2 ) despite neuromuscular blockade, inhaled prostacyclin therapy, open lung ventilation, and recruitment maneuvers. The patient’s tidal volumes were 5 cc/kg, with plateau pressures ranging from 30 to 35 cm H2O just before venovenous ECMO support was initiated. After 10 days, the patient was placed on conventional mechanical ventilation. He was transferred to an inpatient rehabilitation unit 35 days after his hospital admission.

Fig. 2 Patient 2. Chest radiograph at the time of ECMO cannulation shows diffuse pulmonary infiltrates bilaterally.

To follow up on the patient’s severe ARDS, his pulmonary function was tested 3 months after his discharge from the hospital. Spirometry revealed a mildly abnormal FEV1 (73%), normal TLC (84%), and normal DLCO (81%). A chest radiograph showed no evidence of parenchymal lung disease. Further information confirmed the patient’s history of marijuana abuse and his having smoked tainted marijuana cigarettes just before his initial hospitalization.

Discussion

To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of severe respiratory failure and the necessity of ECMO use in relation to the smoking of “wet” marijuana cigarettes.

Inhalation Toxicity of Tainted Marijuana Cigarettes

We think that inhalation exposure was the chief culprit in our patients’ respiratory failure, given the temporal relationship of their use of tainted marijuana and their similar clinical presentations. Both presented with progressive, severe ARDS without any obvious inciting event. Although respiratory failure relating to smoking tainted marijuana cigarettes has not been previously described, some medical literature supports the adverse effects of the typical ingredients on the respiratory system.

Marijuana use by itself has not been linked to respiratory failure; however, it has been associated with chronic respiratory problems, such as bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and histopathologic airway changes. 8–10 The inhalation of embalming fluid has been linked to bronchitis, lung damage, and airway ulcerations. Pulmonary complications have rarely been reported in association with PCP use. 11

The most commonly reported pulmonary symptoms from formaldehyde exposure are acute bronchospasm and occupational asthma. 12–14 We found only one report of formaldehyde exposure’s causing respiratory insufficiency: Dr. John Porter described his own experience and hospital course after prolonged exposure to formaldehyde. 15 While preparing an anatomic specimen with formaldehyde, he developed progressive chest tightness and dyspnea that necessitated hospitalization and oxygen supplementation. Chest radiographs showed interstitial markings that were interpreted to be pulmonary edema. He slowly recovered with corticosteroid therapy and was without subjective symptoms 5 weeks after his hospital admission. 15

Formaldehyde exposure has toxic effects at the cellular level. Inhalation exposure results in impairment of self-repair mechanisms 16 ; in rats, varying degrees of respiratory epithelium hyperplasia and metaplasia have occurred, along with focal necrosis and epithelial thickening. 13,14,17 It is hypothesized that inhalation of formaldehyde promotes mast-cell degranulation and disrupts nitric oxide regulation. 16 This disruption may cause an alteration in both airway and vascular-tone homeostasis. The varying amounts of formaldehyde in embalming fluid, along with the varying degrees and areas of injury, might explain the range in clinical symptoms from bronchial hyperreactivity to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. 18

Specific interactions between formaldehyde and the ingredients in marijuana smoke might also warrant consideration in the pathogenesis of combined exposure. Chronic marijuana inhalation has been identified as a promoter of airway inflammation in human beings. 9,10 This underlying chronic inflammation and epithelial disruption could predispose marijuana users to further airway injury from irritants such as formaldehyde; however, the literature describing such a phenomenon is sparse.

Extracorporeal Oxygenation in Severe Respiratory Failure

Our case reports yield evidence of the value of ECMO support in severe respiratory failure. We propose that patients can recover from severe lung injury after inhaling smoke from tainted marijuana cigarettes, and we recommend fairly aggressive therapy—which might include ECMO—in patients who present with single-organ failure and potentially surmountable lung injury.

Long-term pulmonary outcomes in ARDS survivors have often included abnormal pulmonary function test results, such as mild diffusion and restriction limitations. In our female patient, pulmonary tests 6 months after her hospital discharge disclosed only mild abnormalities. In our male patient, tests 3 months after his hospital discharge revealed relatively normal lung function, except for a mild decrease in spirometric values. These results appear similar to or even better than other long-term pulmonary function follow-up data in ARDS patients.

Conclusion

Our patients had similar presentations after similar temporal exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes. We believe that smoke from tainted marijuana cigarettes could be an unrecognized cause of respiratory failure in young adults who present with an otherwise unclear origin of respiratory failure and ARDS. According to the available literature, the varying quantity and quality of ingredients in marijuana cigarettes can lead to presentations that range from cough and bronchospasm to severe respiratory failure. We recommend that the inhalation of smoke from tainted marijuana cigarettes be considered as the cause of ARDS in young adults, when the clinical context suggests it.

Footnotes

Address for reprints: Christopher R. Gilbert, DO, Pulmonary, Allergy, & Critical Care Medicine, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Dr., MCH041, Hershey, PA 17033

“Smoking Wet” Abstract Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as “wet” or “fry,” has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are

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growing purple

How to Grow Pink or Purple Cannabis Buds

Table of Contents

Would you like to grow colorful cannabis buds? You may have seen marijuana buds that are pink, purple, red, orange, or possibly even blue! But how do you grow colorful buds at home?

If you want to grow buds that are pink, red, or purple, you must choose the right genetics!

The tendency to turn colors is almost 100% determined by strain/genetics, so you can’t force any plant to produce colorful buds. However, you can purchase seeds of strains that naturally turn vibrant colors, and there are tricks to maximize their genetics and bring out the colors of your buds.

You cannot produce buds this purple without a strain that has been bred to makes purple buds. There are tricks to maximize the natural color of your genetics, but you have to start with good genes!

4 Different “Parts” of Cannabis Can Become Colorful

When people are talking about “colorful” buds, most people imagine brightly colored buds in their hands. But there are actually different parts of cannabis plants that can display non-green colors, and sometimes people will lump all them all together. Each one is a little different from each other, and some have a significant effect on the final looks of your bud, while others don’t make much difference.

Many different parts of a cannabis plant can turn purple, including the whole plant!

The parts of the plant that can become colorful are…

  • Pistils (Hairs) – some of the color remains after drying/curing
  • Calyxes (Buds Themselves) – very strong effect on final color
  • Leaves – relatively small effect on final bud color since many are removed by trimming
  • Trichomes – small effect on final color

Buds are made up of different parts and are usually more than one color

Colorful Pistils / Hairs

Most growers want the buds themselves to appear colorful, so the color stays even after the buds are dried and cured.

There are two parts of the buds that can turn color. One part is the pistils/hairs that stick out. There are several strains where the pistils turn pink or purple.

Sometimes just the pistils/hairs turn pink or purple, while the leaves and buds may still be green.

When buds are dried, they retain some of their pistil color, but you will still be able to see the color coming through underneath.

Colorful Calyxes (Buds Themselves)

Calyxes are what make the buds themselves. Cannabis “buds” are actually made of hundreds of calyxes stacked on top of each other, and some or all of them may become colors other than green.

This fantastic picture shows how the overall appearance of buds changes with the ratio of colorful vs. green calyxes.

Nearly all Smooth Smoke buds (by Tropical Seeds) produce at least a few pink calyxes here and there, and some plants in the right conditions can produce buds where almost every calyx is a deep purple.

Calyxes are what give the most color to your buds. Even a few purple calyxes can give the buds an overall purple tint, and when you break open the buds there will be some pieces that are completely purple.

This nug contains several purple calyxes.

After being ground up, you can see the purple pieces distributed throughout. The higher the percentage of purple calyxes, the more vibrant your final bud color will be.

Colorful Leaves – Sometimes It’s Not the Buds That Turn Color!

With some strains, the leaves may turn purple while the buds stay mostly green. This can make for absolutely gorgeous plants, but since leaves mostly get trimmed off after harvest, usually, a lot of the purple will no longer be visible on the buds after the trimming process.

For some strains, the leaves may turn purple while the buds stay green. This often happens after the plant gets exposed to chilly night temperatures (but not always). The leaves exposed to direct light are most likely to turn purple, while leaves in the shade often stay green.

Although the leaves have turned purple, the buds themselves are mostly green.

Only the tops of buds exposed to direct light have any purple left after trimming off all the leaves. Trimming removed almost all of the purple coloring.

Colorful Trichomes

In general, cannabis trichomes go from clear (not ready) to white (highest THC) to amber/yellow (more of a mellow effect) before they eventually wither and die. These color changes are often used to determine the best time to harvest cannabis.

However, sometimes, trichomes can turn purple or pink, making it difficult to know when to harvest. In that case, you want to also look at the pistils to determine the best harvest time!

Purple or pink trichomes can make it tough to know when to harvest, but they’re exotic and beautiful! The color of trichomes may leave a slight tint on the buds after they’ve been dried and cured, but the bud color underneath will be the dominant color.

Now on to making purple buds at home!

How to Maximize Color and Genetics

Before you do anything else, you need to begin with the right genetics. If the genes of your plant don’t make colorful buds, there’s nothing you can do! So, you must start with a colorful strain to get the best results with maximizing color.

  • Choose Colorful Strain (Most important!)
  • Choose Strain that Produces Very Dark Colors (if you want buds to maintain color after being harvested and dried)
  • Temperature – Warm days & cool nights
  • Bright Light – Strong light levels can help bring out color
  • PH at the Roots – Some strains may express colors at higher or lower pH ranges

Choose Strains with Brightly Colored Buds and Pistils If Possible – This maximizes the overall colorful appearance of your buds.

For the most significant final effect on your dried and cured buds, you want to choose a strain where as many parts of the plant as possible are colorful. So ideally, you want buds where the pistils and calyxes (which make up most of the final color) are both vividly colored. If the leaves and trichomes are also colorful, that will improve the effect even further.

In this case, the buds are purple, but the pistils are orange.

To maximize the final color, you want to choose a strain with brightly colored buds and pistils. For example, this bud has purple calyxes, mostly purple pistils and even some purple leaves. This combination makes the entire bud appear bright purple.

Choose Deep Purple Buds for Maximum Color After Drying/Curing – Deeply colored buds (sometimes called “black” strains) tend to be the most vibrant after drying/curing.

To produce the most colorful buds, you need to make sure the color goes all the way through the buds, and ideally, also through all the surrounding leaves. This level of color-penetration is most likely to happen with intensely dark colored buds. Buds that are paler in color tend to lose a lot of their vibrancy in the post-harvest processing.

These buds were mostly pink at harvest, but the color doesn’t go all the way through the buds.

There was still a lot of green on the parts of the buds that didn’t get direct light.

After they’re trimmed and dried, the pink color has become more subtle.

You will “keep” the most color after drying/curing by choosing strains that are dark purple through and through, from buds to pistils to leaves if at all possible. Deeply colored buds keep more of their color after drying and curing than pale purple or pink buds.

These buds were deep purple at harvest…

When buds are darkly colored, they tend to keep more color after being dried and trimmed.

Note: Your buds will naturally lose some of their overall vibrancy and color during the drying/curing process (but not any of their potency!). That’s why you will likely never run into neon purple buds that have already been dried and cured for 2+ weeks. Even green buds go from being bright green to a more muted green color by the time they’ve cured for a few weeks. When you see very brightly colored buds, it almost always means the buds are still relatively fresh.

Although color is determined primarily by genetics, there are a few things you can do to help your plant express its natural colors…

Temperature – Some Strains Express Colors When the Night Temperature is a Few Degrees Cooler than the Day

If you’re growing a strain that turns color, some strains will only show their colors when night temperatures are at least a few degrees cooler than during the day in the flowering stage, especially towards the end. However, some plants don’t react to cool night temperatures, and many strains (like Panama) nearly always turn color no matter what the temperature.

Certain strains like Querkle turn color more easily when the temperature is warm during the day as opposed to cool at night. So, it’s always a good idea to aim for nice warm days, and cool, comfortable nights, because that contrast seems to help bring out colors for many strains.

How to Maximize Color with Temperature

  • Warm Days (75-80°F / 24-27°C)
  • Cool Comfortable Nights (65-70°F / 18-21°C)

Note: Some strains turn color no matter what the temperature. You can sometimes contact the breeder and ask if they have advice on how to bring out colors for a particular strain. I’ve found that most breeders will get back to you quickly if you go to their website and ask questions!

Temperature makes a difference! Some strains need contrast between day/night temperatures for their buds to turn colors. For example, the buds of this Auto Frisian Dew turned bright purple after it started getting below 70°F (21°C) temperatures at night.

Strong, Direct Light may help bring out colors

In some cases, a plant may produce purple tones in response to intense, direct light (on buds and leaves). Although we’re not sure exactly why it’s possible this may act as a sort of sunscreen for the plant! The importance of light levels varies on a strain by strain basis.

The pH at the Roots may affect cannabis bud color expression

Outside the cannabis world, there are a few species of plants with flowers that are known to turn different colors based on the pH at the roots.

For example, the flowers of specific types of hydrangeas can turn blue in very acidic soil but may turn pink if exposed to neutral or only slightly acidic soil (though this type of variation is rare in the plant world).

Yet there have been occasional reports of cannabis strains that produce different bud colors based on the pH at the roots, though unfortunately, more testing is needed!

If growing multiple plants of the same strain, you might consider giving plants different pH ranges to see what effect it has on the final bud color!

Pictures and Examples of Colorful Strains

Here are some pictures of cannabis strains that sometimes grow colorful purple and pink buds.

Photoperiod (Regular) Strains

Frisian Dew

The next two pics are of the strain Frisian Dew, a popular strain by Dutch Passion, who specifically designed the strain for growing outdoors. It is exceptionally hardy, high yielding, and is also mold and pest resistant. About 50% of the time, Frisian Dew buds will turn bright purple instead of green!

The plant in the middle with the dark purple buds is Frisian Dew.

Purple Trainwreck

Purple Trainwreck buds are usually purple-tinted, with purple leaves or pistils.

This Purple Trainwreck plant is growing purple pistils.

For this Purple Trainwreck cola, it’s mostly just the leaves turning purple. In either case, the effects are the same!

This Purple Trainwreck bud turned particularly purple.

Panama

The following plants with pink pistils are from the strain Panama by Ace Seeds

This is what Panama buds may look like when they’re first growing in.

beautiful pink pistil pic by trippergreenfeet

As the Panama buds develop, the pistils and even the buds themselves may intensify their pink color

Smooth Smoke

Smooth Smoke buds (by Tropical Seeds) can become quite colorful, with colors from hints of pink to deep purple!

Auto-Flowering Strains

Auto Frisian Dew

Auto Frisian Dew by Dutch Passion (this is an auto-flowering version of the original famous marijuana strain) – Unlike the regular Frisian Dew which gets about 50% purple bud plants, the breeder claims only 10% of the plants from this strain produce purple buds. Still, some growers are getting far better odds than that. When purple does appear, the color is incredibly vibrant and spills out onto the nearby leaves!

This Auto Frisian Dew plant got a little stunted at first, but still ended up producing beautiful purple buds!

Auto-Flowering Bloody Skunk

Auto-Flowering Dark Devil

Dark Devil Auto is another fabulous auto-flowering strain by Sweet Seeds that turns a gorgeous purple or even a deep red.

This Dark Devil Auto bud turned completely purple from top to bottom.

Purple Kush Auto

Brilliant color on Purple Kush Auto plants! The buds turn almost black after being dried!

pics by kingkola1

Colorful “Duck” Strains (Stealth Leaves)

“Duck” strains are characterized by their oddly shaped leaves. The idea is that the plants look less like cannabis with 3-finger leaves. The bright colored buds also help make them look less like cannabis.

Frisian Duck

One of the most popular variations of the Ducksfoot (Ducksfeet?) strains is called Frisian Duck by Dutch Passion. This strain thrives outdoors and grows with the traditional stealthy leaves. This strain also often makes bright, beautiful purple buds (with cold enough temperatures) that have a fresh scent that is sometimes even a little fruity.

Frisian Duck plants react well to growing in a living soil that’s been composted and amended with slow-release organic ingredients.

This is a Frisian Duck plant in the vegetative stage.

This Frisian Duck plant was grown outdoors in a greenhouse. More than half of Frisian Duck plants grow bright purple buds!

Frisian Duck is based on the famous Frisian Dew strain which also produces purple buds and has been bred for generations specifically for growing outdoors. The Frisian genes thrive under sunlight, and buds are resistant to bugs and mold!

This Frisian Duck plant is just about ready to harvest!

However, even with stealthy strains, be aware that they still smell like cannabis in the budding stage!

Why Do Cannabis Leaves and Buds Turn Purple?

Sometimes you’ll see purple leaves because of a nutrient deficiency, but oftentimes purple leaves are actually caused by natural plant processes!

There are many species of plants that make purple leaves. The leaves appear purple due to high levels of a purple pigment called anthocyanin. Anthocyanin may act as a sunscreen for plant leaves because it protects against damage caused by UV-B rays. Anthocyanin is also known to help protect against cold or heat stress on the cellular level.

It’s not just cannabis plants that grow purple leaves. Here’s an example of a False Shamrock plant, which has glorious purple leaves from top to bottom!

With some cannabis strains, the leaves may turn purple while the buds stay green. Just like with buds, the leaves are more likely to turn color when the plants are getting cool night temperatures in the late flowering stage.

The leaves most likely to be affected are the top leaves and other leaves getting direct light. With this purpling, the leaves in the shade of the plant usually stay green.

For some strains, the leaves may turn purple while the buds stay green.

The leaves of this plant turned purple overnight after that plant was exposed to chilly night temperatures.

The leaves exposed to direct light are most likely to turn purple, while leaves in the shade often stay green

In this case, all the leaves that are exposed to the light have turned purple, including the sugar leaves. However, once the leaves are trimmed off, the buds will be mostly green.

Buds may still be purple-tinted from leaves that weren’t completely trimmed off.

If there’s a lot of purple leaves, there may be a lot of color left even after trimming.

Case Study – Super Purple Haze plant

The top leaves of this Super Purple Haze plant have turned a vibrant purple

Here are the buds from that Super Purple Haze plant drying – you can see that the parts of the buds that were exposed to the light have strong hints of purple

A closer look at those buds so you can better see how much bud is purple and how much is green after being trimmed and dried (click for a closeup!)

This cannabis plant has grown vibrant red and purple leaves.

This outdoor cannabis plant has turned purple everywhere it received direct sunlight. Splendid!

Cannabis sometimes has neat mutations, like this two-tone plant where only half the leaves turned purple!

These Swiss Cheese plants by Nirvana exploded with red, pink and purple leaves when it got cool at night right near harvest time, but the buds themselves did not change color. Unfortunately, when just the leaves turn color, the buds themselves will often look mostly green once they’re trimmed. But this beautiful picture lives forever!

Bright purple stems may be a sign of a phosphorus deficiency, but this “symptom” is sometimes actually caused by genetics, just like purple leaves, pistils or buds!

Blue Dream (rare deep purple phenotype)

Blue Dream buds usually don’t turn this deep purple, so if you want to see buds like this you’re better off with a strain that’s bred to always grow dark purple buds. However, the pictures were so beautiful I just had to share!

How can you grow colorful buds that turn purple or pink? Learn which strains to get, as well as what you can do to maximize color during your grow.

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amino acids cannabis

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is weed legal in rockford

Despite legal pot law, no weed allowed in Rockford public housing

Posted: Nov 6, 2019 / 05:11 PM CST / Updated: Nov 6, 2019 / 05:11 PM CST

ROCKFORD, Ill. (WTVO) — Starting January 1st, recreational marijuana use will be legal in Illinois, but not for residents of public housing. The U.S. Government, which subsidizes public housing, still considers marijuana illegal.

Ronald Rider has lived at North Main Manor, a public housing complex in downtown Rockford, for almost eight years.

He says he’s worried that when January rolls around, people will be smoking marijuana in the building.

He acknowledges that some of his neighbors already do.

“I know that it does happen. I’ve had occasions where I’ve had to walk through the hallways, where it’s too much,” Rider said.

Rider says he is a recovering alcoholic. He says the smell of marijuana can be a problem for people dealing with addiction.

“It’s a trigger. Anybody who has an addiction issue, whether it be drugs, alcohol, or anything like that, it’s a trigger,” he said. “I could smell some of that and go, ‘You know what? That looks good, or, that smells good.’”

Alan Zais is the executive director of the Winnebago County Housing Authority.

He says, despite marijuana soon to be legal in Illinois, federal authorities still consider the drug illegal.

Violations within government subsidized public housing units could result in a loss of federal funding.

“And it’s not just the subsidies we get from HUD for the programs,” Zais said. “We get a lot of grants for other programs, too, where we have to verify that we’re a drug-free environment.”

“I just don’t want anybody’s housing [situation to be] affected, and we’re going to advise our residents and just tell them, ‘Don’t do this on the site. Nothing changes for you after January 1st.’”

Zais says the Winnebago County Housing Authority will be sending written notification to all of their tenants about the rule.

A spokesperson from the Rockford Housing Authority says they will hold mandatory meetings in all of their properties, to discuss the rules with residents.

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ROCKFORD, Ill. (WTVO) — Starting January 1st, recreational marijuana use will be legal in Illinois, but not for residents of public housing. The U.S. Government, which subsidizes public housing, still considers marijuana illegal. Ronald Rider has lived at North Main Manor, a public housing complex in downtown Rockford, for almost eight years. He says he’s […]

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seaweed seeds

How to Start Seeds Indoors With Liquid Seaweed

Related Articles

Treating seeds with liquid seaweed before sowing them can result in higher germination rates as well as more vigorous growth and disease resistance in the resulting plants. Liquid seaweed naturally contains micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and growth hormones. Depending on the species, the seeds may need cold stratification and scarification. Stratification is commonly accomplished by storing the seeds in the refrigerator for a few months, and scarification is done by nicking or sanding the hard seed coat. These steps must be taken prior to treating seeds with liquid seaweed.

Pour 1 cup of liquid seaweed and 4 cups of water into a glass or plastic container. Stir the solution until it is well mixed. Pour the seeds into the solution and let them soak for 12 hours.

Pour seed germination potting mix or a mixture that consists of one-half sphagnum peat moss and one-half perlite or coarse sand into seed flats or small containers with drain holes in the bottom. Moisten the mix with room-temperature water.

Sow the seeds in the moistened potting mix. Bury them one to two times the seeds’ width or, if the seeds are very tiny and need light exposure to germinate, sprinkle them over the moistened potting mix.

Cover the seed flats or containers with a piece of plastic or put them in clear plastic bags and seal the bags. Set the flats or containers in bright, indirect light.

Maintain a soil temperature of 75 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit or at the germination temperature recommended for the species. Mist the soil with room-temperature water if it begins to dry out.

  • American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy 2: Effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer on Growth and Pigment Concentration of Cyamopsis Tetrogonolaba (L) Taub
  • University of Florida: IFAS Extension: Propagation of Landscape Plants1

Reannan Raine worked for 30 years in the non-profit sector in various positions. She recently became a licensed insurance agent but has decided to pursue a writing career instead. Ms. Raine is hoping to have her first novel published soon.

How to Start Seeds Indoors With Liquid Seaweed. Treating seeds with liquid seaweed before sowing them can result in higher germination rates as well as more vigorous growth and disease resistance in the resulting plants. Liquid seaweed naturally contains micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and …

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mint auto

Mint Auto Sales – Used car dealer in Islip, NY

Welcome to Mint Auto Sales. We are a full service New York used car dealer located in Islip serving the towns of Suffolk County, East Islip NY, Bay Shore NY, North Bay Shore NY, Brentwood NY, Central Islip NY, West Islip NY, Bohemia NY, North Babylon NY, Babylon NY, Deer Park NY, Hauppauge NY, Sayville NY, West Babylon NY, Ronkonkoma NY and Lake Ronkonkoma NY. We take pride in the quality used inventory that we carry that include Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Fisker, Ford, Honda, Hyundai, Jeep, Kia, Lincoln, Nissan, Ram and Toyota. The cars, SUVs, minivans, trucks and pickups we carry are inspected and often may be eligible for the many extended service contracts & warranties we offer. More»

Our finance department has relations with most banks and lending institutions in NY and will help you get a car loan at affordable payments. We provide sub-prime financing too and in most cases your credit history may not be a problem as you might think! At Mint Auto Sales, we believe you can get financed with good, bad or no credit history at all.

Our used car service & auto repair facility located in Islip is equipped with the latest equipment to handle domestic and imported car servicing. We also offer state-of-the-art auto detailing services that will make any used car look brand new. Call (631) 277-0022 to get a quote from our auto detailing professionals and see your vehicle transformed with a sparkling new look.

Top 4 Factors That Impact a Used Car’s Trade-In Value

Are you familiar with the factors that affect a vehicle’s trade-in value? While some may be largely apparent, there are a few that are unpredictable and could easily reduce your chances of breaking even. This is why professionals at Mint Auto Sales in Islip, NY, strongly encourage their clients to become acquainted with the components that may alter the amount they receive for their used car. Not only will this information help you to better understand the trade-in process, but it will also set realistic expectations prior to the appointment. Below are the top four factors that play a part in determining a used car’s trade-in value.

Mint Auto Sales -(631) 277-0022 is a used car dealer in Islip, East Islip, Bay Shore, North Bay Shore, New York selling used Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Fisker, Ford, Honda, Hyundai, Jeep, Kia, Lincoln, Nissan, Ram and Toyota

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skunk off reviews

Skunk off reviews

I tried the KOE odor eliminating solution and it is the finest that I have ever used. I cannot believe how quickly the smell is gone!” Christine A. Morris – New Beginnings Pet Rescue

SKUNK-OFF®

  • Directions for Use
  • Available SKU’s
  • Related Products
SHAMPOO & LIQUID

Shake bottle before using. Wipe off excess skunk spray and then saturate the entire area with Skunk-Off Shampoo or liquid paying particular attention to the area of the direct hit. Work in thoroughly. Be sure to apply to eye lids, mouth and in between toes. Thoroughly rinse animal and dry. If odor persists, continue to reapply as necessary.

SPRAY

Directions for Use on the Pet: Wipe off excess skunk spray. Saturate area of direct hit with Skunk-Off. Work in thoroughly, rinse and then let dry. If odor persists, continue to reapply as necessary.

PREMISE SPRAY

Directions for Use Indoor-Outdoor: To be used with pump-up sprayer or as a refill for Skunk-Off quart pistol grip sprayer. Skunk-Off can be safely applied to automobiles, crawl space, outdoor home and decking as well as indoor carpets, upholstery, clothing or bedding. Use Skunk-Off liquid in laundry at a rate of 2-4 ounces per regular load. Skunk-Off may also be applied by fogging in enclosed areas (garage, outbuildings).

Directions for Use in the Home: Skunk-Off can be safely applied to carpets, upholstery, clothing or bedding. Use Skunk-Off liquid in laundry at a rate of 2-4 ounces per regular load. Skunk-Off may also be applied in larger areas by wet fogging with a dilution of 1:1 with water.

Product Safety

All Thornell products are safe for use on any surface or directly on the animal. As with any pet care product, consult with your veterinarian and review and follow the label directions. Contains water, proprietary essential oil blend and preservatives.

Keep out of the reach of children. For external use only.

Cautions

Skunk-Off may in some cases cause minor eye irritation. Rinse with water as needed. Caution should be taken when using on cats. Be sure to thoroughly rinse if using Skunk-Off on cats. Cats are natural groomers they continually lick their hair coat. Skunk-Off in the cat’s mouth is not dangerous but it may cause excessive drooling.

• Soaker 8oz (236ml)
• Shampoo 8oz (236ml)
• Shampoo 128oz (3.79L)
• Spray 32oz (946ml)
• Premise Spray 128oz (3.79L)

Skunk off reviews I tried the KOE odor eliminating solution and it is the finest that I have ever used. I cannot believe how quickly the smell is gone!” Christine A. Morris – New Beginnings Pet

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mendo breath strain info

Mendo Breath

Taste & Smell

  • Earthy
  • Sweet

Effects

  • Hungry
  • Sleepy
  • Dry Eyes
  • Dry Mouth

Pairs Well With

  • Eating
  • Sleeping

About this Hybrid Strain

The dense buds from this indica-leaning cannabis plant smell heavily of creamy vanilla and fresh caramel combined with undertones of pine and skunk. The flavor of the smoke from Mendo Breath is distinctly earthy with notes of the candied sweetness.

Mendo Breath, for all of its qualities, is pretty well known for one thing: being a total knock-out of a strain. This one’s highly recommended for anyone having troubles sleeping, such as with insomnia, restlessness, or just a round of random stress preventing quality rest. It also works fairly well for managing pain or stimulating hunger in those having difficulty eating. So, it should go without saying this cultivar is best saved for night time use; only pursue daytime use with caution.

Common side effects from Mendo Breath include cottonmouth and red eyes.

The dense buds from this indica-leaning cannabis plant smell heavily of creamy vanilla and fresh caramel combined with undertones of pine and skunk. The flavor of the smoke from Mendo Breath is distinctly earthy with notes of the candied sweetness. Mendo Breath, for all of its qualities, is pretty…

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automatic watering system for indoor plants

Plant Irrigation Indoors: Set Up A System For Watering Houseplants

Setting up an indoor watering system doesn’t have to be complicated and is so worthwhile when you’re finished. Plant irrigation indoors saves time that you can devote to other areas of your plant’s needs. It also allows plants to get watered when you’re away from home.

Indoor Plant Watering Devices

There are a few indoor plant watering systems that you can purchase and put together, including smart irrigation systems. There are also self-watering stakes and self-watering containers. These are ready to use straight from the box.

We’ve likely all seen the bulbs that are used to water our plants. Some are plastic and some are glass. These are attractive, inexpensive, and easy to use but the capabilities are limited. You might use them if you just need to water your plants for a few days at a time.

Numerous DIY watering devices are discussed on blogs online. Some are as simple as an upside-down water bottle. Most, however, tend to drench the plant and don’t allow much control of the amount of water you’re providing.

Indoor Drip Plant Watering System

If you want an automatic houseplant system for watering houseplants that works for the entire season, such as in a greenhouse where you’re growing multiple plants, you can use a drip system on a timer. Drip watering is better for the plants in many situations and less likely to spread diseases.

The setup is not so simple as some already discussed, but not difficult. You’ll need to invest a little more but purchasing a system kit ensures you have all the materials. Purchase the entire system together instead of buying it piece by piece. They include tubing, fittings to keep tubing in the proper place, emitter heads, and a timer.

The installation process begins at the water source. If a water softener is installed, hook up in a way to bypass it, usually by installing an additional hose bib. The salts used in the water softener are toxic to plants.

Install a backflow preventer in this situation. This keeps water that carries fertilizer from flowing back into your clean water. Hook up the filter assembly along with the backflow preventer. Insert the timer, then the hose thread to pipe thread adapter. There may also be a pressure reducer for your water source. For this system, you’ll need to look at the plant’s setup and determine how much tubing is needed.

Setting up an indoor watering system doesn’t have to be complicated and is worthwhile too. Find tips for easy plant irrigation indoors in this article.