CBD Oil With Turmeric Side Effects

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Learn more about TURMERIC uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain TURMERIC. Find out more about complementary medicines and the top five that people contact us about.

TURMERIC – Uses, Side Effects, and More

Turmeric is a common spice that comes from the root of Curcuma longa. It contains a chemical called curcumin, which might reduce swelling.

Turmeric has a warm, bitter taste and is frequently used to flavor or color curry powders, mustards, butters, and cheeses. Because curcumin and other chemicals in turmeric might decrease swelling, it is often used to treat conditions that involve pain and inflammation.

People commonly use turmeric for osteoarthritis. It is also used for hay fever, depression, high cholesterol, a type of liver disease, and itching, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses. There is also no good evidence to support using turmeric for COVID-19.

Don’t confuse turmeric with Javanese turmeric root or tree turmeric. Also, don’t confuse it with zedoary or goldenseal, which are unrelated plants that are sometimes called turmeric.

Uses & Effectiveness ?

Possibly Effective for

    . Taking turmeric by mouth seems to reduce hay fever symptoms such as sneezing, itching, runny nose, and congestion.
  • Depression. Most research shows that taking curcumin, a chemical found in turmeric, by mouth reduces depression symptoms in people already using an antidepressant.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Taking turmeric by mouth seems to lower levels of blood fats called triglycerides. But the effects of turmeric on cholesterol levels are conflicting. Also, there are many different turmeric products available. It is not known which ones work best.
  • Buildup of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Taking turmeric extract by mouth reduces markers of liver injury in people who have this condition. It also seems to help prevent the build-up of more fat in the liver.
  • Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking curcumin, a chemical found in turmeric, by mouth, or as a lozenge or mouthwash, seems to prevent swelling and sores in the mouth during radiation treatment for cancer.
  • Osteoarthritis. Taking turmeric extracts, alone or together with other herbal ingredients, can reduce pain and improve function in people with knee osteoarthritis. Turmeric might work about as well as ibuprofen for reducing pain. But it doesn’t seem to work as well as another drug, called diclofenac.
  • Itching. Taking turmeric by mouth might reduce itching that is caused by various conditions.

Possibly Ineffective for

    . Taking turmeric, or a chemical in turmeric called curcumin, by mouth does not seem to improve symptoms of Alzheimer disease. ulcers. Taking turmeric by mouth does not seem to improve stomach ulcers.

Side Effects

When taken by mouth: Turmeric is likely safe when used short-term. Turmeric products that provide up to 8 grams of curcumin daily seem to be safe when used for up to 2 months, Also, taking up to 3 grams of turmeric daily seems to be safe when used for up to 3 months. Turmeric usually doesn’t cause serious side effects. Some people can experience mild side effects such as stomach upset, nausea, dizziness, or diarrhea. These side effects are more common at higher doses.

When applied to the skin: Turmeric is likely safe. It is possibly safe when turmeric is applied inside the mouth as a mouthwash.

When applied into the rectum: Turmeric is possibly safe when used as an enema.

Special Precautions and Warnings

When taken by mouth: Turmeric is likely safe when used short-term. Turmeric products that provide up to 8 grams of curcumin daily seem to be safe when used for up to 2 months, Also, taking up to 3 grams of turmeric daily seems to be safe when used for up to 3 months. Turmeric usually doesn’t cause serious side effects. Some people can experience mild side effects such as stomach upset, nausea, dizziness, or diarrhea. These side effects are more common at higher doses.

When applied to the skin: Turmeric is likely safe. It is possibly safe when turmeric is applied inside the mouth as a mouthwash.

When applied into the rectum: Turmeric is possibly safe when used as an enema.

Pregnancy: Turmeric is commonly used in small amounts as a spice in foods. But it’s likely unsafe to use larger amounts of turmeric as a medicine during pregnancy. It might cause a menstrual period or stimulate the uterus, putting the pregnancy at risk. Do not take medicinal amounts of turmeric if you are pregnant.

Breast-feeding: Turmeric is commonly used in small amounts as a spice in foods. But there isn’t enough reliable information to know if turmeric is safe to use in medicinal amounts during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Gallbladder problems: Turmeric can make gallbladder problems worse. Do not use turmeric if you have gallstones or a bile duct obstruction.

Bleeding problems: Taking turmeric might slow blood clotting. This might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Turmeric contains a chemical called curcumin, which might act like the hormone estrogen. In theory, this might have effects on hormone-sensitive conditions. Until more is known, use cautiously if you have a condition that might be made worse by exposure to hormones.

Infertility: Turmeric might lower testosterone levels and decrease sperm movement. This might reduce fertility. Turmeric should be used cautiously by people trying to have a baby.

Liver disease: There is some concern that turmeric can damage the liver, especially in people who have liver disease. Don’t use turmeric if you have liver problems.

Surgery: Turmeric might slow blood clotting. It might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using turmeric at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions ?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might slow blood clotting. Taking turmeric along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might lower blood sugar levels. Taking turmeric along with diabetes medications might cause blood sugar to drop too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely.

Talinolol interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might decrease how much talinolol the body absorbs. Taking turmeric while taking talinolol might decrease the effects of talinolol.

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might increase how much sulfasalazine the body absorbs. Taking turmeric while taking sulfasalazine might increase the effects and side effects of sulfasalazine.

Tacrolimus (Prograf) interacts with TURMERIC

Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with TURMERIC

Warfarin is used to slow blood clotting. Taking turmeric while taking warfarin might increase the effects of warfarin and increase the risk of bleeding and bruising.

Medications for cancer (Alkylating agents) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effects of some medications used for cancer. If you are taking medications for cancer, check with your healthcare provider before taking turmeric.

Medications for cancer (Antitumor antibiotics) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effects of medications used for cancer. If you are taking medications for cancer, check with your healthcare provider before taking turmeric.

Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase I inhibitors) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. If you are taking medications for cancer, check with your healthcare provider before taking turmeric.

Amlodipine (Norvasc) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might increase how much amlodipine the body absorbs. Taking turmeric while taking amlodipine might increase the effects and side effects of amlodipine.

Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might harm the liver. Some medications can also harm the liver. Taking turmeric along with a medication that can harm the liver might increase the risk of liver damage.

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might decrease how much tamoxifen is in the body. Taking turmeric with tamoxifen might decrease the effects of tamoxifen.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) substrates) interacts with TURMERIC

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Turmeric might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interacts with TURMERIC

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Turmeric might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with TURMERIC

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Turmeric might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Estrogens interacts with TURMERIC

Large amounts of turmeric might interfere with the effects of estrogen. Taking turmeric along with estrogen might decrease the effects of estrogens.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Norfloxacin (Noroxin) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might increase how much norfloxacin the body absorbs. Taking turmeric while taking norfloxacin might increase the effects and side effects of norfloxacin.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates) interacts with TURMERIC

Some medications are moved in and out of cells by pumps. Turmeric might change how these pumps work and change how much medication stays in the body. In some cases, this might change the effects and side effects of a medication.

Paclitaxel (Abraxane, Onxol) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might change how much paclitaxel stays in the body. Taking turmeric while taking paclitaxel might change the effects and side effects of paclitaxel. However, this doesn’t seem to be a big concern.

Docetaxel (Taxotere) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric might increase how much docetaxel the body absorbs. Taking turmeric while taking docetaxel might increase the effects and side effects of docetaxel.

Glyburide (Diabeta, others) interacts with TURMERIC

Turmeric contains curcumin. Curcumin might lower blood sugar. Glyburide is also used to lower blood sugar. Taking curcumin or turmeric along with glyburide might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. Your dose of glyburide might need to be changed.

Dosing

Turmeric has most often been used by adults in doses of up to 1.5 grams daily for up to 9 months. It is also sometimes used in mouthwashes, gels, creams, and tonics. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose might be best for a specific condition.

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Fiala, M., Liu, P. T., Espinosa-Jeffrey, A., Rosenthal, M. J., Bernard, G., Ringman, J. M., Sayre, J., Zhang, L., Zaghi, J., Dejbakhsh, S., Chiang, B., Hui, J., Mahanian, M., Baghaee, A., Hong, P., and Cashman, J. Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT-III and Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer’s disease patients are improved by bisdemethoxycurcumin. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S A 7-31-2007;104(31):12849-12854. View abstract.

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Gonda, R., Tomoda, M., Takada, K., Ohara, N., and Shimizu, N. The core structure of ukonan A, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, and immunological activities of degradation products. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1992;40(4):990-993. View abstract.

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Gota, V. S., Maru, G. B., Soni, T. G., Gandhi, T. R., Kochar, N., and Agarwal, M. G. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a solid lipid curcumin particle formulation in osteosarcoma patients and healthy volunteers. J Agric.Food Chem 2-24-2010;58(4):2095-2099. View abstract.

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Grandjean-Laquerriere, A., Gangloff, S. C., Le Naour, R., Trentesaux, C., Hornebeck, W., and Guenounou, M. Relative contribution of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the modulation by curcumin and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate of the UVB-induced cytokine expression by keratinocytes. Cytokine 5-7-2002;18(3):168-177. View abstract.

Guimaraes, M. R., Coimbra, L. S., de Aquino, S. G., Spolidorio, L. C., Kirkwood, K. L., and Rossa, C., Jr. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically administered curcumin modulate periodontal disease in vivo. J Periodontal Res 2011;46(2):269-279. View abstract.

Hanai, H., Iida, T., Takeuchi, K., Watanabe, F., Maruyama, Y., Andoh, A., Tsujikawa, T., Fujiyama, Y., Mitsuyama, K., Sata, M., Yamada, M., Iwaoka, Y., Kanke, K., Hiraishi, H., Hirayama, K., Arai, H., Yoshii, S., Uchijima, M., Nagata, T., and Koide, Y. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2006;4(12):1502-1506. View abstract.

He, Z. Y., Shi, C. B., Wen, H., Li, F. L., Wang, B. L., and Wang, J. Upregulation of p53 expression in patients with colorectal cancer by administration of curcumin. Cancer Invest 2011;29(3):208-213. View abstract.

Hergenhahn, M., Soto, U., Weninger, A., Polack, A., Hsu, C. H., Cheng, A. L., and Rosl, F. The chemopreventive compound curcumin is an efficient inhibitor of Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 transcription in Raji DR-LUC cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2002;33(3):137-145. View abstract.

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Holt, P. R., Katz, S., and Kirshoff, R. Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2005;50(11):2191-2193. View abstract.

Honda, S., Aoki, F., Tanaka, H., Kishida, H., Nishiyama, T., Okada, S., Matsumoto, I., Abe, K., and Mae, T. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-29-2006;54(24):9055-9062. View abstract.

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Huang, C. Y., Chen, J. H., Tsai, C. H., Kuo, W. W., Liu, J. Y., and Chang, Y. C. Regulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling in human osteosarcoma cells stimulated with nicotine. J Periodontal Res 2005;40(2):176-181. View abstract.

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Huang, M. T., Deschner, E. E., Newmark, H. L., Wang, Z. Y., Ferraro, T. A., and Conney, A. H. Effect of dietary curcumin and ascorbyl palmitate on azoxymethanol- induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and focal areas of dysplasia. Cancer Lett. 6-15-1992;64(2):117-121. View abstract.

Huang, M. T., Lysz, T., Ferraro, T., Abidi, T. F., Laskin, J. D., and Conney, A. H. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on in vitro lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities in mouse epidermis. Cancer Res. 2-1-1991;51(3):813-819. View abstract.

Hussain, M. S. and Chandrasekhara, N. Effect on curcumin on cholesterol gall-stone induction in mice. Indian J Med.Res. 1992;96:288-291. View abstract.

Inano, H. and Onoda, M. Radioprotective action of curcumin extracted from Curcuma longa LINN: inhibitory effect on formation of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, tumorigenesis, but not mortality, induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Int.J Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 7-1-2002;53(3):735-743. View abstract.

Jain, S. K., Rains, J., Croad, J., Larson, B., and Jones, K. Curcumin supplementation lowers TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion in high glucose-treated cultured monocytes and blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic rats. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2009;11(2):241-249. View abstract.

Jain, V., Prasad, V., Pal, R., and Singh, S. Standardization and stability studies of neuroprotective lipid soluble fraction obtained from Curcuma longa. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 9-3-2007;44(5):1079-1086. View abstract.

Jayasekera, R., Freitas, M. C., and Araujo, M. F. Bulk and trace element analysis of spices: the applicability of k0-standardization and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. J Trace Elem.Med.Biol. 2004;17(4):221-228. View abstract.

Ji, H. F. and Shen, L. Interactions of curcumin with the PfATP6 model and the implications for its antimalarial mechanism. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 5-1-2009;19(9):2453-2455. View abstract.

Ji, M., Choi, J., Lee, J., and Lee, Y. Induction of apoptosis by ar-turmerone on various cell lines. Int.J Mol.Med. 2004;14(2):253-256. View abstract.

Jiang, H., Timmermann, B. N., and Gang, D. R. Use of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to identify diarylheptanoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizome. J Chromatogr.A 4-7-2006;1111(1):21-31. View abstract.

Joshi, J., Ghaisas, S., Vaidya, A., Vaidya, R., Kamat, D. V., Bhagwat, A. N., and Bhide, S. Early human safety study of turmeric oil (Curcuma longa oil) administered orally in healthy volunteers. J Assoc.Physicians India 2003;51:1055-1060. View abstract.

Juan, H., Terhaag, B., Cong, Z., Bi-Kui, Z., Rong-Hua, Z., Feng, W., Fen-Li, S., Juan, S., Jing, T., and Wen-Xing, P. Unexpected effect of concomitantly administered curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63(7):663-668. View abstract.

Kalpana, C. and Menon, V. P. Curcumin ameliorates oxidative stress during nicotine-induced lung toxicity in Wistar rats. Ital.J Biochem. 2004;53(2):82-86. View abstract.

Kalpana, C. and Menon, V. P. Modulatory effects of curcumin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity. Pol.J Pharmacol 2004;56(5):581-586. View abstract.

Kanai, M., Imaizumi, A., Otsuka, Y., Sasaki, H., Hashiguchi, M., Tsujiko, K., Matsumoto, S., Ishiguro, H., and Chiba, T. Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 2012;69(1):65-70. View abstract.

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Kaur, G., Tirkey, N., Bharrhan, S., Chanana, V., Rishi, P., and Chopra, K. Inhibition of oxidative stress and cytokine activity by curcumin in amelioration of endotoxin-induced experimental hepatoxicity in rodents. Clin Exp.Immunol. 2006;145(2):313-321. View abstract.

Kawamori, T., Lubet, R., Steele, V. E., Kelloff, G. J., Kaskey, R. B., Rao, C. V., and Reddy, B. S. Chemopreventive effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti- inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Res 2-1-1999;59(3):597-601. View abstract.

Khajehdehi, P., Zanjaninejad, B., Aflaki, E., Nazarinia, M., Azad, F., Malekmakan, L., and Dehghanzadeh, G. R. Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study. J Ren Nutr 2012;22(1):50-57. View abstract.

Kheradpezhouh, E., Panjehshahin, M. R., Miri, R., Javidnia, K., Noorafshan, A., Monabati, A., and Dehpour, A. R. Curcumin protects rats against acetaminophen-induced hepatorenal damages and shows synergistic activity with N-acetyl cysteine. Eur.J Pharmacol 2-25-2010;628(1-3):274-281. View abstract.

Kiec-Swierczynska, M. and Krecisz, B. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to curcumin food colour in a pasta factory worker. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39(1):30-31. View abstract.

Kim, D. S., Park, S. Y., and Kim, J. K. Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) that protect PC12 rat pheochromocytoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells from betaA(1-42) insult. Neurosci.Lett. 4-27-2001;303(1):57-61. View abstract.

Kim, H. J. and Jang, Y. P. Direct analysis of curcumin in turmeric by DART-MS. Phytochem.Anal. 2009;20(5):372-377. View abstract.

Kim, H. J., Yoo, H. S., Kim, J. C., Park, C. S., Choi, M. S., Kim, M., Choi, H., Min, J. S., Kim, Y. S., Yoon, S. W., and Ahn, J. K. Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication. J Ethnopharmacol. 7-15-2009;124(2):189-196. View abstract.

Kim, K., Kim, K. H., Kim, H. Y., Cho, H. K., Sakamoto, N., and Cheong, J. Curcumin inhibits hepatitis C virus replication via suppressing the Akt-SREBP-1 pathway. FEBS Lett. 2-19-2010;584(4):707-712. View abstract.

Koosirirat, C., Linpisarn, S., Changsom, D., Chawansuntati, K., and Wipasa, J. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10(7):815-818. View abstract.

Korutla, L. and Kumar, R. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity in A431 cells. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 12-30-1994;1224(3):597-600. View abstract.

Kusuhara, H., Furuie, H., Inano, A., Sunagawa, A., Yamada, S., Wu, C., Fukizawa, S., Morimoto, N., Ieiri, I., Morishita, M., Sumita, K., Mayahara, H., Fujita, T., Maeda, K., and Sugiyama, Y. Pharmacokinetic interaction study of sulphasalazine in healthy subjects and the impact of curcumin as an in vivo inhibitor of BCRP. Br J Pharmacol 2012;166(6):1793-1803. View abstract.

Kutluay, S. B., Doroghazi, J., Roemer, M. E., and Triezenberg, S. J. Curcumin inhibits herpes simplex virus immediate-early gene expression by a mechanism independent of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity. Virology 4-10-2008;373(2):239-247. View abstract.

Kuwabara, N., Tamada, S., Iwai, T., Teramoto, K., Kaneda, N., Yukimura, T., Nakatani, T., and Miura, K. Attenuation of renal fibrosis by curcumin in rat obstructive nephropathy. Urology 2006;67(2):440-446. View abstract.

Lamb, S. R. and Wilkinson, S. M. Contact allergy to tetrahydrocurcumin. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48(4):227. View abstract.

Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Solyom, A. M., Jolad, S. D., and Timmermann, B. N. The effect of turmeric extracts on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(6-7):445-452. View abstract.

Lee, J. C., Kinniry, P. A., Arguiri, E., Serota, M., Kanterakis, S., Chatterjee, S., Solomides, C. C., Javvadi, P., Koumenis, C., Cengel, K. A., and Christofidou-Solomidou, M. Dietary curcumin increases antioxidant defenses in lung, ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and improves survival in mice. Radiat.Res 2010;173(5):590-601. View abstract.

Leite, K. R., Chade, D. C., Sanudo, A., Sakiyama, B. Y., Batocchio, G., and Srougi, M. Effects of curcumin in an orthotopic murine bladder tumor model. Int.Braz.J Urol. 2009;35(5):599-606. View abstract.

Li, H., van Berlo, D., Shi, T., Speit, G., Knaapen, A. M., Borm, P. J., Albrecht, C., and Schins, R. P. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line. Toxicol Appl.Pharmacol 2-15-2008;227(1):115-124. View abstract.

Li, W. Q., Dehnade, F., and Zafarullah, M. Oncostatin M-induced matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 genes expression in chondrocytes requires Janus kinase/STAT signaling pathway. J Immunol. 3-1-2001;166(5):3491-3498. View abstract.

Li, W., Wang, S., Feng, J., Xiao, Y., Xue, X., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., and Liang, X. Structure elucidation and NMR assignments for curcuminoids from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. Magn Reson.Chem. 2009;47(10):902-908. View abstract.

Li, W., Xiao, H., Wang, L., and Liang, X. [Analysis of minor curcuminoids in Curcuma longa L. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. Se.Pu. 2009;27(3):264-269. View abstract.

Li, Y. C., Wang, F. M., Pan, Y., Qiang, L. Q., Cheng, G., Zhang, W. Y., and Kong, L. D. Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin on serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress of rats. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 4-30-2009;33(3):435-449. View abstract.

Lian, Q., Li, X., Shang, Y., Yao, S., Ma, L., and Jin, S. Protective effect of curcumin on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats. J Huazhong.Univ Sci.Technolog.Med.Sci. 2006;26(6):678-681. View abstract.

Liddle, M., Hull, C., Liu, C., and Powell, D. Contact urticaria from curcumin. Dermatitis 2006;17(4):196-197. View abstract.

Lim, G. P., Chu, T., Yang, F., Beech, W., Frautschy, S. A., and Cole, G. M. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci. 11-1-2001;21(21):8370-8377. View abstract.

Lin, R., Chen, X., Li, W., Han, Y., Liu, P., and Pi, R. Exposure to metal ions regulates mRNA levels of APP and BACE1 in PC12 cells: blockage by curcumin. Neurosci.Lett. 8-8-2008;440(3):344-347. View abstract.

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Madden, K., Flowers, L., Salani, R., Horowitz, I., Logan, S., Kowalski, K., Xie, J., and Mohammed, S. I. Proteomics-based approach to elucidate the mechanism of antitumor effect of curcumin in cervical cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2009;80(1):9-18. View abstract.

Madkor, H. R., Mansour, S. W., and Ramadan, G. Modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats. Br J Nutr 2011;105(8):1210-1217. View abstract.

Mahattanadul, S., Nakamura, T., Panichayupakaranant, P., Phdoongsombut, N., Tungsinmunkong, K., and Bouking, P. Comparative antiulcer effect of bisdemethoxycurcumin and curcumin in a gastric ulcer model system. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(4):342-351. View abstract.

Mahesh, T., Balasubashini, M. S., and Menon, V. P. Effect of photo-irradiated curcumin treatment against oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med.Food 2005;8(2):251-255. View abstract.

Mahesh, T., Sri Balasubashini, M. M., and Menon, V. P. Photo-irradiated curcumin supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effect on lipid peroxidation. Therapie 2004;59(6):639-644. View abstract.

Mani, H., Sidhu, G. S., Kumari, R., Gaddipati, J. P., Seth, P., and Maheshwari, R. K. Curcumin differentially regulates TGF-beta1, its receptors and nitric oxide synthase during impaired wound healing. Biofactors 2002;16(1-2):29-43. View abstract.

Manzan, A. C., Toniolo, F. S., Bredow, E., and Povh, N. P. Extraction of essential oil and pigments from Curcuma longa [L] by steam distillation and extraction with volatile solvents. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-5-2003;51(23):6802-6807. View abstract.

Mehta, K., Pantazis, P., McQueen, T., and Aggarwal, B. B. Antiproliferative effect of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against human breast tumor cell lines. Anticancer Drugs 1997;8(5):470-481. View abstract.

Meja, K. K., Rajendrasozhan, S., Adenuga, D., Biswas, S. K., Sundar, I. K., Spooner, G., Marwick, J. A., Chakravarty, P., Fletcher, D., Whittaker, P., Megson, I. L., Kirkham, P. A., and Rahman, I. Curcumin restores corticosteroid function in monocytes exposed to oxidants by maintaining HDAC2. Am.J Respir.Cell Mol.Biol. 2008;39(3):312-323. View abstract.

Meselhy, M. R. Inhibition of LPS-induced NO production by the oleogum resin of Commiphora wightii and its constituents. Phytochemistry 2003;62(2):213-218. View abstract.

Mishra, R. K. and Singh, S. K. Reversible antifertility effect of aqueous rhizome extract of Curcuma longa L. in male laboratory mice. Contraception 2009;79(6):479-487. View abstract.

Moghaddam, S. J., Barta, P., Mirabolfathinejad, S. G., Ammar-Aouchiche, Z., Garza, N. T., Vo, T. T., Newman, R. A., Aggarwal, B. B., Evans, C. M., Tuvim, M. J., Lotan, R., and Dickey, B. F. Curcumin inhibits COPD-like airway inflammation and lung cancer progression in mice. Carcinogenesis 2009;30(11):1949-1956. View abstract.

Mohammadi, A., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Amini, M., Khojasteh, R., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., and Ferns, G. A. Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytother Res 2013;27(3):374-379. View abstract.

Molnar, V. and Garai, J. Plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds affect MIF tautomerase activity. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(5):849-856. View abstract.

Moon, D. O., Jin, C. Y., Lee, J. D., Choi, Y. H., Ahn, S. C., Lee, C. M., Jeong, S. C., Park, Y. M., and Kim, G. Y. Curcumin decreases binding of Shiga-like toxin-1B on human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 stimulated with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta: suppression of p38, JNK and NF-kappaB p65 as potential targets. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2006;29(7):1470-1475. View abstract.

Moon, D. O., Kim, M. O., Lee, H. J., Choi, Y. H., Park, Y. M., Heo, M. S., and Kim, G. Y. Curcumin attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by regulating nitric oxide. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 10-17-2008;375(2):275-279. View abstract.

Mrudula, T., Suryanarayana, P., Srinivas, P. N., and Reddy, G. B. Effect of curcumin on hyperglycemia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 9-21-2007;361(2):528-532. View abstract.

Mukherjee, S., Roy, M., Dey, S., and Bhattacharya, R. K. A Mechanistic Approach for Modulation of Arsenic Toxicity in Human Lymphocytes by Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Medicinal Herb Curcuma longa Linn. J Clin Biochem.Nutr. 2007;41(1):32-42. View abstract.

Mun, S. H., Kim, H. S., Kim, J. W., Ko, N. Y., Kim, do K., Lee, B. Y., Kim, B., Won, H. S., Shin, H. S., Han, J. W., Lee, H. Y., Kim, Y. M., and Choi, W. S. Oral administration of curcumin suppresses production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 to ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis: inhibition of the PKCdelta/JNK/c-Jun pathway. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;111(1):13-21. View abstract.

Murugan, P. and Pari, L. Influence of tetrahydrocurcumin on erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes and antioxidant status in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-25-2007;113(3):479-486. View abstract.

Nagabhushan, M., Amonkar, A. J., and Bhide, S. V. In vitro antimutagenicity of curcumin against environmental mutagens. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1987;25(7):545-547. View abstract.

Nakmareong, S., Kukongviriyapan, U., Pakdeechote, P., Donpunha, W., Kukongviriyapan, V., Kongyingyoes, B., Sompamit, K., and Phisalaphong, C. Antioxidant and vascular protective effects of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2011;383(5):519-529. View abstract.

Nan, B., Lin, P., Lumsden, A. B., Yao, Q., and Chen, C. Effects of TNF-alpha and curcumin on the expression of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor in human endothelial cells. Thromb.Res 2005;115(5):417-426. View abstract.

Nan, B., Yang, H., Yan, S., Lin, P. H., Lumsden, A. B., Yao, Q., and Chen, C. C-reactive protein decreases expression of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor in human endothelial cells. Surgery 2005;138(2):212-222. View abstract.

Nayak, S. and Sashidhar, R. B. Metabolic intervention of aflatoxin B1 toxicity by curcumin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-17-2010;127(3):641-644. View abstract.

Naz, R. K. Can curcumin provide an ideal contraceptive? Mol.Reprod.Dev 2011;78(2):116-123. View abstract.

Nemavarkar, P., Chourasia, B. K., and Pasupathy, K. Evaluation of radioprotective action of compounds using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol Oncol. 2004;23(2):145-151. View abstract.

Nguyen, K. T., Shaikh, N., Shukla, K. P., Su, S. H., Eberhart, R. C., and Tang, L. Molecular responses of vascular smooth muscle cells and phagocytes to curcumin-eluting bioresorbable stent materials. Biomaterials 2004;25(23):5333-5346. View abstract.

O’Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.

Oetari, S., Sudibyo, M., Commandeur, J. N., Samhoedi, R., and Vermeulen, N. P. Effects of curcumin on cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol 1-12-1996;51(1):39-45. View abstract.

Olszanecki, R., Gebska, A., and Korbut, R. The role of haem oxygenase-1 in the decrease of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by curcumin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;101(6):411-415. View abstract.

Panahi, Y., Sahebkar, A., Amiri, M., Davoudi, S. M., Beiraghdar, F., Hoseininejad, S. L., and Kolivand, M. Improvement of sulphur mustard-induced chronic pruritus, quality of life and antioxidant status by curcumin: results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2012;108(7):1272-1279. View abstract.

Panahi, Y., Sahebkar, A., Parvin, S., and Saadat, A. A randomized controlled trial on the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in patients with chronic sulphur mustard-induced cutaneous complications. Ann.Clin Biochem. 2012;49(Pt 6):580-588. View abstract.

Panchatcharam, M., Miriyala, S., Gayathri, V. S., and Suguna, L. Curcumin improves wound healing by modulating collagen and decreasing reactive oxygen species. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2006;290(1-2):87-96. View abstract.

Paramasivam, S., Thangaradjou, T., and Kannan, L. Effect of natural preservatives on the growth of histamine producing bacteria. J Environ.Biol. 2007;28(2):271-274. View abstract.

Park, B. S., Kim, J. G., Kim, M. R., Lee, S. E., Takeoka, G. R., Oh, K. B., and Kim, J. H. Curcuma longa L. constituents inhibit sortase A and Staphylococcus aureus cell adhesion to fibronectin. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-16-2005;53(23):9005-9009. View abstract.

Park, C., Moon, D. O., Choi, I. W., Choi, B. T., Nam, T. J., Rhu, C. H., Kwon, T. K., Lee, W. H., Kim, G. Y., and Choi, Y. H. Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E(2) production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int.J Mol.Med. 2007;20(3):365-372. View abstract.

Park, E. J., Jeon, C. H., Ko, G., Kim, J., and Sohn, D. H. Protective effect of curcumin in rat liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52(4):437-440. View abstract.

Park, S. Y. and Kim, D. S. Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protect cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzheimer’s disease. J Nat.Prod. 2002;65(9):1227-1231. View abstract.

Parshad, R., Sanford, K. K., Price, F. M., Steele, V. E., Tarone, R. E., Kelloff, G. J., and Boone, C. W. Protective action of plant polyphenols on radiation-induced chromatid breaks in cultured human cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18(5A):3263-3266. View abstract.

Patel, S. S., Shah, R. S., and Goyal, R. K. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2009;47(7):564-570. View abstract.

Patumraj, S., Wongeakin, N., Sridulyakul, P., Jariyapongskul, A., Futrakul, N., and Bunnag, S. Combined effects of curcumin and vitamin C to protect endothelial dysfunction in the iris tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Clin Hemorheol.Microcirc. 2006;35(4):481-489. View abstract.

Pavithra, B. H., Prakash, N., and Jayakumar, K. Modification of pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin following oral administration of curcumin in rabbits. J Vet.Sci. 2009;10(4):293-297. View abstract.

Peeyush, K. T., Gireesh, G., Jobin, M., and Paulose, C. S. Neuroprotective role of curcumin in the cerebellum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 11-4-2009;85(19-20):704-710. View abstract.

Perez-Arriaga, L., Mendoza-Magana, M. L., Cortes-Zarate, R., Corona-Rivera, A., Bobadilla-Morales, L., Troyo-Sanroman, R., and Ramirez-Herrera, M. A. Cytotoxic effect of curcumin on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Acta Trop. 2006;98(2):152-161. View abstract.

Peschel, D., Koerting, R., and Nass, N. Curcumin induces changes in expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. J Nutr.Biochem. 2007;18(2):113-119. View abstract.

Platel, K. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Nahrung 2000;44(1):42-46. View abstract.

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Punithavathi, D., Venkatesan, N., and Babu, M. Curcumin inhibition of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Br.J Pharmacol 2000;131(2):169-172. View abstract.

Punithavathi, D., Venkatesan, N., and Babu, M. Protective effects of curcumin against amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Br.J Pharmacol 2003;139(7):1342-1350. View abstract.

Qin, N. Y., Yang, F. Q., Wang, Y. T., and Li, S. P. Quantitative determination of eight components in rhizome (Jianghuang) and tuberous root (Yujin) of Curcuma longa using pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 1-17-2007;43(2):486-492. View abstract.

Quiles, J. L., Mesa, M. D., Ramirez-Tortosa, C. L., Aguilera, C. M., Battino, M., Gil, A., and Ramirez-Tortosa, M. C. Curcuma longa extract supplementation reduces oxidative stress and attenuates aortic fatty streak development in rabbits. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 7-1-2002;22(7):1225-1231. View abstract.

Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al Yahya, M. A., Mossa, J. S., and Ageel, A. M. Evaluation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) for gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29(1):25-34. View abstract.

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Ram, A., Das, M., and Ghosh, B. Curcumin attenuates allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea pigs. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2003;26(7):1021-1024. View abstract.

Ramaswami, G., Chai, H., Yao, Q., Lin, P. H., Lumsden, A. B., and Chen, C. Curcumin blocks homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries. J Vasc.Surg. 2004;40(6):1216-1222. View abstract.

Ramirez-Bosca, A., Soler, A., Carrion, M. A., Diaz-Alperi, J., Bernd, A., Quintanilla, C., Quintanilla, Almagro E., and Miquel, J. An hydroalcoholic extract of curcuma longa lowers the apo B/apo A ratio. Implications for atherogenesis prevention. Mech.Ageing Dev. 10-20-2000;119(1-2):41-47. View abstract.

Ramirez-Tortosa, M. C., Ramirez-Tortosa, C. L., Mesa, M. D., Granados, S., Gil, A., and Quiles, J. L. Curcumin ameliorates rabbits’s steatohepatitis via respiratory chain, oxidative stress, and TNF-alpha. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 10-1-2009;47(7):924-931. View abstract.

Ranjan, D., Siquijor, A., Johnston, T. D., Wu, G., and Nagabhuskahn, M. The effect of curcumin on human B-cell immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus. Am Surg 1998;64(1):47-51. View abstract.

Rao, C. V., Simi, B., and Reddy, B. S. Inhibition by dietary curcumin of azoxymethane-induced ornithine decarboxylase, tyrosine protein kinase, arachidonic acid metabolism and aberrant crypt foci formation in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis 1993;14(11):2219-2225. View abstract.

Rastogi, M., Ojha, R. P., Rajamanickam, G. V., Agrawal, A., Aggarwal, A., and Dubey, G. P. Curcuminoids modulates oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic rat brain. Free Radic.Res 2008;42(11-12):999-1005. View abstract.

Rasyid, A. and Lelo, A. The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall-bladder function: an ultrasound study. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13(2):245-249. View abstract.

Reyes-Gordillo, K., Segovia, J., Shibayama, M., Tsutsumi, V., Vergara, P., Moreno, M. G., and Muriel, P. Curcumin prevents and reverses cirrhosis induced by bile duct obstruction or CCl4 in rats: role of TGF-beta modulation and oxidative stress. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2008;22(4):417-427. View abstract.

Reyes-Gordillo, K., Segovia, J., Shibayama, M., Vergara, P., Moreno, M. G., and Muriel, P. Curcumin protects against acute liver damage in the rat by inhibiting NF-kappaB, proinflammatory cytokines production and oxidative stress. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1770(6):989-996. View abstract.

Rezvani, M. and Ross, G. A. Modification of radiation-induced acute oral mucositis in the rat. Int.J Radiat.Biol. 2004;80(2):177-182. View abstract.

Rithaporn, T., Monga, M., and Rajasekaran, M. Curcumin: a potential vaginal contraceptive. Contraception 2003;68(3):219-223. View abstract.

Romero, M. R., Efferth, T., Serrano, M. A., Castano, B., Macias, R. I., Briz, O., and Marin, J. J. Effect of artemisinin/artesunate as inhibitors of hepatitis B virus production in an “in vitro” replicative system. Antiviral Res 2005;68(2):75-83. View abstract.

Rukkumani, R., Aruna, K., Varma, P. S., and Menon, V. P. Curcumin influences hepatic expression patterns of matrix metalloproteinases in liver toxicity. Ital.J Biochem. 2004;53(2):61-66. View abstract.

Sahin, Kavakli H., Koca, C., and Alici, O. Antioxidant effects of curcumin in spinal cord injury in rats. Ulus.Travma.Acil.Cerrahi.Derg. 2011;17(1):14-18. View abstract.

Salh, B. S., Assi, K., Templeman, V., Parhar, K., Owen, D., Gomez-Munoz, A., and Jacobson, K. Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. Am.J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 3-13-2003; View abstract.

Satoskar, R. R., Shah, S. J., and Shenoy, S. G. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. Int.J Clin Pharmacol Ther.Toxicol. 1986;24(12):651-654. View abstract.

Seo, K. I., Choi, M. S., Jung, U. J., Kim, H. J., Yeo, J., Jeon, S. M., and Lee, M. K. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52(9):995-1004. View abstract.

Shahiduzzaman, M., Dyachenko, V., Khalafalla, R. E., Desouky, A. Y., and Daugschies, A. Effects of curcumin on Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro. Parasitol.Res 2009;105(4):1155-1161. View abstract.

Sharma, R. A., Euden, S. A., Platton, S. L., Cooke, D. N., Shafayat, A., Hewitt, H. R., Marczylo, T. H., Morgan, B., Hemingway, D., Plummer, S. M., Pirmohamed, M., Gescher, A. J., and Steward, W. P. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res 10-15-2004;10(20):6847-6854. View abstract.

Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S. K., Agrewala, J. N., and Chopra, K. Curcumin attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain. Eur.J Pharmacol 5-1-2006;536(3):256-261. View abstract.

Shimmyo, Y., Kihara, T., Akaike, A., Niidome, T., and Sugimoto, H. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin suppress amyloid beta-induced beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 upregulation. Neuroreport 8-27-2008;19(13):1329-1333. View abstract.

Shimouchi, A., Nose, K., Takaoka, M., Hayashi, H., and Kondo, T. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2009;54(8):1725-1729. View abstract.

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Shoskes, D. A. Effect of bioflavonoids quercetin and curcumin on ischemic renal injury: a new class of renoprotective agents. Transplantation 7-27-1998;66(2):147-152. View abstract.

Shu, J. C., He, Y. J., Lv, X., Ye, G. R., and Wang, L. X. Curcumin prevents liver fibrosis by inducing apoptosis and suppressing activation of hepatic stellate cells. J Nat.Med. 2009;63(4):415-420. View abstract.

Shubha, M. C., Reddy, R. R., and Srinivasan, K. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011;36(2):201-209. View abstract.

Sivalingam, N., Hanumantharaya, R., Faith, M., Basivireddy, J., Balasubramanian, K. A., and Jacob, M. Curcumin reduces indomethacin-induced damage in the rat small intestine. J Appl.Toxicol 2007;27(6):551-560. View abstract.

Smith, M. R., Gangireddy, S. R., Narala, V. R., Hogaboam, C. M., Standiford, T. J., Christensen, P. J., Kondapi, A. K., and Reddy, R. C. Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury. Am.J Physiol Lung Cell Mol.Physiol 1-8-2010; View abstract.

Song, E. K., Cho, H., Kim, J. S., Kim, N. Y., An, N. H., Kim, J. A., Lee, S. H., and Kim, Y. C. Diarylheptanoids with free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity in vitro from Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 2001;67(9):876-877. View abstract.

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Srinivasan, K. and Sambaiah, K. The effect of spices on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and on serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in the rat. Int.J Vitam.Nutr.Res 1991;61(4):364-369. View abstract.

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Srivastava, K. C., Bordia, A., and Verma, S. K. Curcumin, a major component of food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits aggregation and alters eicosanoid metabolism in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;52(4):223-227. View abstract.

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Sugimoto, K., Hanai, H., Tozawa, K., Aoshi, T., Uchijima, M., Nagata, T., and Koide, Y. Curcumin prevents and ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 2002;123(6):1912-1922. View abstract.

Sumiyoshi, M. and Kimura, Y. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(12):1137-1143. View abstract.

Suzuki, M., Betsuyaku, T., Ito, Y., Nagai, K., Odajima, N., Moriyama, C., Nasuhara, Y., and Nishimura, M. Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice. Am.J Physiol Lung Cell Mol.Physiol 2009;296(4):L614-L623. View abstract.

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Tang, Y. H., Bao, M. W., Yang, B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, B. S., Zhou, Q., Chen, J. L., and Huang, C. X. [Curcumin attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling in rabbits with chronic heart failure.]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 2009;37(3):262-267. View abstract.

Tanwar, V., Sachdeva, J., Golechha, M., Kumari, S., and Arya, D. S. Curcumin protects rat myocardium against isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury: attenuation of ventricular dysfunction through increased expression of Hsp27 along with strengthening antioxidant defense system. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2010;55(4):377-384. View abstract.

Tanwar, V., Sachdeva, J., Kishore, K., Mittal, R., Nag, T. C., Ray, R., Kumari, S., and Arya, D. S. Dose-dependent actions of curcumin in experimentally induced myocardial necrosis: a biochemical, histopathological, and electron microscopic evidence. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2010;28(1):74-82. View abstract.

Tayel, A. A. and El Tras, W. F. Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts. J Egypt.Public Health Assoc. 2009;84(1-2):21-32. View abstract.

Teichmann, A., Heuschkel, S., Jacobi, U., Presse, G., Neubert, R. H., Sterry, W., and Lademann, J. Comparison of stratum corneum penetration and localization of a lipophilic model drug applied in an o/w microemulsion and an amphiphilic cream. Eur.J Pharm Biopharm. 2007;67(3):699-706. View abstract.

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Tikoo, K., Meena, R. L., Kabra, D. G., and Gaikwad, A. B. Change in post-translational modifications of histone H3, heat-shock protein-27 and MAP kinase p38 expression by curcumin in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic nephropathy. Br.J Pharmacol 2008;153(6):1225-1231. View abstract.

Tirkey, N., Kaur, G., Vij, G., and Chopra, K. Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, attenuates cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rat kidneys. BMC.Pharmacol 2005;5:15. View abstract.

Ukil, A., Maity, S., Karmakar, S., Datta, N., Vedasiromoni, J. R., and Das, P. K. Curcumin, the major component of food flavour turmeric, reduces mucosal injury in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Br.J Pharmacol 2003;139(2):209-218. View abstract.

Usharani, P., Mateen, A. A., Naidu, M. U., Raju, Y. S., and Chandra, N. Effect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week study. Drugs R.D. 2008;9(4):243-250. View abstract.

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Varghese, K., Molnar, P., Das, M., Bhargava, N., Lambert, S., Kindy, M. S., and Hickman, J. J. A new target for amyloid beta toxicity validated by standard and high-throughput electrophysiology. PLoS.One. 2010;5(1):e8643. View abstract.

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Vitaglione, P., Barone, Lumaga R., Ferracane, R., Radetsky, I., Mennella, I., Schettino, R., Koder, S., Shimoni, E., and Fogliano, V. Curcumin bioavailability from enriched bread: the effect of microencapsulated ingredients. J Agric.Food Chem 4-4-2012;60(13):3357-3366. View abstract.

Vizzutti, F., Provenzano, A., Galastri, S., Milani, S., Delogu, W., Novo, E., Caligiuri, A., Zamara, E., Arena, U., Laffi, G., Parola, M., Pinzani, M., and Marra, F. Curcumin limits the fibrogenic evolution of experimental steatohepatitis. Lab Invest 2010;90(1):104-115. View abstract.

Voznesens’ka, T. I., Bryzhina, T. M., Sukhina, V. S., Makohon, N. V., and Aleksieieva, I. M. [Effect of NF-kappaB activation inhibitor curcumin on the oogenesis and follicular cell death in immune ovarian failure in mice]. Fiziol.Zh. 2010;56(4):96-101. View abstract.

Waghmare, P. F., Chaudhari, A. U., Karhadkar, V. M., and Jamkhande, A. S. Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study. J Contemp.Dent Pract. 2011;12(4):221-224. View abstract.

Wan, X. H., Li, Y. W., and Luo, X. P. [Curcumin attenuated the lipid peroxidation and apoptotic liver injury in copper-overloaded rats]. Zhonghua Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2007;45(8):604-608. View abstract.

Wang, B. M., Zhai, C. Y., Fang, W. L., Chen, X., Jiang, K., and Wang, Y. M. [The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the proliferation of HT-29 colonic cancer cell induced by deoxycholic acid]. Zhonghua Nei Ke.Za Zhi. 2009;48(9):760-763. View abstract.

Wang, L. Y., Zhang, M., Zhang, C. F., and Wang, Z. T. Alkaloid and sesquiterpenes from the root tuber of Curcuma longa. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2008;43(7):724-727. View abstract.

Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Wu, H., and Lv, F. Study on the antibiotic activity of microcapsule curcumin against foodborne pathogens. Int.J Food Microbiol. 11-30-2009;136(1):71-74. View abstract.

Wei, S. M., Yan, Z. Z., and Zhou, J. Curcumin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis. Fertil.Steril. 2009;91(1):271-277. View abstract.

Weisberg, S. P., Leibel, R., and Tortoriello, D. V. Dietary curcumin significantly improves obesity-associated inflammation and diabetes in mouse models of diabesity. Endocrinology 2008;149(7):3549-3558. View abstract.

Wessler, S., Muenzner, P., Meyer, T. F., and Naumann, M. The anti-inflammatory compound curcumin inhibits Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced NF-kappaB signaling, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and attenuates adhesion in late infection. Biol.Chem. 2005;386(5):481-490. View abstract.

Wichitnithad, W., Jongaroonngamsang, N., Pummangura, S., and Rojsitthisak, P. A simple isocratic HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids in commercial turmeric extracts. Phytochem.Anal. 2009;20(4):314-319. View abstract.

Wongcharoen, W., Jai-Aue, S., Phrommintikul, A., Nawarawong, W., Woragidpoonpol, S., Tepsuwan, T., Sukonthasarn, A., Apaijai, N., and Chattipakorn, N. Effects of curcuminoids on frequency of acute myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol 7-1-2012;110(1):40-44. View abstract.

Wu, J. C., Lai, C. S., Badmaev, V., Nagabhushanam, K., Ho, C. T., and Pan, M. H. Tetrahydrocurcumin, a major metabolite of curcumin, induced autophagic cell death through coordinative modulation of PI3K/Akt-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2011;55(11):1646-1654. View abstract.

Xu, P. H., Long, Y., Dai, F., and Liu, Z. L. The relaxant effect of curcumin on porcine coronary arterial ring segments. Vascul.Pharmacol 2007;47(1):25-30. View abstract.

Xu, Y., Ku, B. S., Yao, H. Y., Lin, Y. H., Ma, X., Zhang, Y. H., and Li, X. J. Antidepressant effects of curcumin in the forced swim test and olfactory bulbectomy models of depression in rats. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2005;82(1):200-206. View abstract.

Xu, Y., Ku, B. S., Yao, H. Y., Lin, Y. H., Ma, X., Zhang, Y. H., and Li, X. J. The effects of curcumin on depressive-like behaviors in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol 7-25-2005;518(1):40-46. View abstract.

Yan, Y. D., Kim, D. H., Sung, J. H., Yong, C. S., and Choi, H. G. Enhanced oral bioavailability of docetaxel in rats by four consecutive days of pre-treatment with curcumin. Int J Pharm 10-31-2010;399(1-2):116-120. View abstract.

Yang, X., Thomas, D. P., Zhang, X., Culver, B. W., Alexander, B. M., Murdoch, W. J., Rao, M. N., Tulis, D. A., Ren, J., and Sreejayan, N. Curcumin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell function and injury-induced neointima formation. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2006;26(1):85-90. View abstract.

Yano, Y., Satomi, M., and Oikawa, H. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2006;111(1):6-11. View abstract.

Yao, J., Zhang, Q., Min, J., He, J., and Yu, Z. Novel enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) potential inhibitors of Escherichia coli from Chinese medicine monomers. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 1-1-2010;20(1):56-59. View abstract.

Yao, Q. H., Wang, D. Q., Cui, C. C., Yuan, Z. Y., Chen, S. B., Yao, X. W., Wang, J. K., and Lian, J. F. Curcumin ameliorates left ventricular function in rabbits with pressure overload: inhibition of the remodeling of the left ventricular collagen network associated with suppression of myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2004;27(2):198-202. View abstract.

Yeh, C. H., Chen, T. P., Wu, Y. C., Lin, Y. M., and Jing, Lin P. Inhibition of NFkappaB activation with curcumin attenuates plasma inflammatory cytokines surge and cardiomyocytic apoptosis following cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. J Surg.Res 5-1-2005;125(1):109-116. View abstract.

Yeh, C. H., Lin, Y. M., Wu, Y. C., and Lin, P. J. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation can attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced contractility impairment via decreasing cardiomyocytic proinflammatory gene up-regulation and matrix metalloproteinase expression. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2005;45(4):301-309. View abstract.

Yeon, K. Y., Kim, S. A., Kim, Y. H., Lee, M. K., Ahn, D. K., Kim, H. J., Kim, J. S., Jung, S. J., and Oh, S. B. Curcumin produces an antihyperalgesic effect via antagonism of TRPV1. J Dent.Res 2010;89(2):170-174. View abstract.

Yiu, W. F., Kwan, P. L., Wong, C. Y., Kam, T. S., Chiu, S. M., Chan, S. W., and Chan, R. Attenuation of fatty liver and prevention of hypercholesterolemia by extract of Curcuma longa through regulating the expression of CYP7A1, LDL-receptor, HO-1, and HMG-CoA reductase. J Food Sci 2011;76(3):H80-H89. View abstract.

Yu, Y. M. and Lin, H. C. Curcumin prevents human aortic smooth muscle cells migration by inhibiting of MMP-9 expression. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2010;20(2):125-132. View abstract.

Yu, Y., Hu, S. K., and Yan, H. [The study of insulin resistance and leptin resistance on the model of simplicity obesity rats by curcumin]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2008;42(11):818-822. View abstract.

Yu, Z. F., Kong, L. D., and Chen, Y. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83(1-2):161-165. View abstract.

Yuan, H. Y., Kuang, S. Y., Zheng, X., Ling, H. Y., Yang, Y. B., Yan, P. K., Li, K., and Liao, D. F. Curcumin inhibits cellular cholesterol accumulation by regulating SREBP-1/caveolin-1 signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29(5):555-563. View abstract.

Yuan, K., Weng, Q., Zhang, H., Xiong, J., and Xu, G. Application of capillary zone electrophoresis in the separation and determination of the curcuminoids in urine. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 6-1-2005;38(1):133-138. View abstract.

Yuan, K., Weng, Q., Zhang, H., Xiong, J., Yang, J., and Xu, G. [Determination of curcumin in urine by capillary electrophoresis]. Se.Pu. 2004;22(6):609-612. View abstract.

Yun, S. S., Kim, S. P., Kang, M. Y., and Nam, S. H. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on liver injury in a murine model of endotoxemic shock. Biotechnol.Lett. 2010;32(2):209-214. View abstract.

Zahid, Ashraf M., Hussain, M. E., and Fahim, M. Antiatherosclerotic effects of dietary supplementations of garlic and turmeric: Restoration of endothelial function in rats. Life Sci. 7-8-2005;77(8):837-857. View abstract.

Zeng, Y., Qiu, F., Takahashi, K., Liang, J., Qu, G., and Yao, X. New sesquiterpenes and calebin derivatives from Curcuma longa. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2007;55(6):940-943. View abstract.

Zhang, D. P., Qiu, H., Zhuang, Y., and Meng, F. Q. [The effect of curcumin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats]. Zhonghua Jie.He.He.Hu Xi.Za Zhi. 2007;30(3):197-201. View abstract.

Zhang, J., Jinnai, S., Ikeda, R., Wada, M., Hayashida, S., and Nakashima, K. A simple HPLC-fluorescence method for quantitation of curcuminoids and its application to turmeric products. Anal.Sci. 2009;25(3):385-388. View abstract.

Zhang, L., Fiala, M., Cashman, J., Sayre, J., Espinosa, A., Mahanian, M., Zaghi, J., Badmaev, V., Graves, M. C., Bernard, G., and Rosenthal, M. Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. J Alzheimers.Dis. 2006;10(1):1-7. View abstract.

Zhang, M., Deng, C., Zheng, J., Xia, J., and Sheng, D. Curcumin inhibits trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(8):1233-1242. View abstract.

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Palatty PL, Azmidah A, Rao S, et al. Topical application of a sandal wood oil and turmeric based cream prevents radiodermatitis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study. Br J Radiol. 2014;87(1038):20130490. View abstract.

Panahi Y, Karbasi A, Valizadegan G, et al. Effect of curcumin on severity of functional dyspepsia: a triple blinded clinical trial. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1308:119-126. View abstract.

Panahi Y, Kinpour P, Mohtashami R, Jafari R, Simental-Mendia LE, Sahebkar A. Efficacy and safety of phytosomal curcumin in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2017 Apr;67(4):244-51. View abstract.

Panahi Y, Saberi-Karimian M, Valizadeh O, et al. Effects of curcuminoids on systemic inflammation and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1328:1-9. View abstract.

Panahi Y, Vahedian-Azimi A, Saadat A, et al. The effects of curcumin on the side effects of anticancer drugs in chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1328:255-273. View abstract.

Pandaran Sudheeran S, Jacob D, Natinga Mulakal J, et al. Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016;36(3):236-43. View abstract.

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Passildas-Jahanmohan J, Eymard JC, Pouget M, et al. Multicenter randomized phase II study comparing docetaxel plus curcumin versus docetaxel plus placebo in first-line treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Med. 2021;10(7):2332-2340. View abstract.

Pawar KS, Mastud RN, Pawar SK, et al. Oral curcumin with piperine as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:669362. View abstract.

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Price, R. J., Scott, M. P., Giddings, A. M., Walters, D. G., Stierum, R. H., Meredith, C., and Lake, B. G. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes. Xenobiotica 2008;38(6):574-586. View abstract.

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Tsai IC, Hsu CW, Chang CH, Tseng PT, Chang KV. The effect of curcumin differs on individual cognitive domains across different patient populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14(12):1235. View abstract.

Tuntipopipat, S., Judprasong, K., Zeder, C., Wasantwisut, E., Winichagoon, P., Charoenkiatkul, S., Hurrell, R., and Walczyk, T. Chili, but not turmeric, inhibits iron absorption in young women from an iron-fortified composite meal. J Nutr. 2006;136(12):2970-2974. View abstract.

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Complementary treatments and arthritis – from turmeric to cannabis oil

People use complementary medicine for many different reasons, including:

  • wanting to use more natural treatments
  • their symptoms aren’t fully controlled by conventional medicine.

Read more about complementary therapies which can help to ease the symptoms of arthritis, from yoga to meditation.

Are they right for me?

As with all complementary treatments, different things work for different people and it isn’t possible to predict which might be the most useful or effective.

There are some key points to consider if you’re thinking about using any complementary treatments.

  • What are you hoping to achieve? Pain relief? More energy? Better sleep? Reduction in medication?
  • What are the financial costs?
  • Is there any evidence for their effectiveness?

Are complementary medicines safe?

Complementary medicines are relatively safe, although you should always talk to your doctor before you start any new treatment.

In specific cases they may not be recommended, for example, if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, or they may interact with certain medication.

A starter for five

Here we share a spotlight on the most popular complementary medicines that people call our helpline about.

Turmeric

It’s thought that turmeric can possibly reduce inflammation, which could help people with arthritis.

People with knee osteoarthritis who took part in a research trial reported improvements to their pain levels after taking turmeric. The evidence is limited however, as it is from just one trial. What evidence there is suggested that people only had minor side-effects after taking turmeric.

Turmeric can be bought from health food shops, pharmacies and supermarkets in the form of powder.

Glucosamine

Glucosamine sulphate and glucosamine hydrochloride are nutritional supplements. Animal studies have found that glucosamine can both delay the breakdown of and repair damaged cartilage.

The results for the use of glucosamine for osteoarthritis are mixed and the size of the effect is modest. There’s some evidence that more recent trials and those using higher-quality methods are less likely to show a benefit.

Capsaicin

Capsaicin is taken from chilli peppers. It works mainly by reducing Substance P, a pain transmitter in your nerves. Results from randomised controlled trials assessing its role in treating osteoarthritis suggest that it can be effective in reducing pain and tenderness in affected joints, and it has no major safety problems. Evidence for its effectiveness for fibromyalgia is related to a single trial.

Other names: Axsain®, Zacin®, chilli, pepper gel, cayenne

Capsaicin is licensed in the UK for osteoarthritis and you can get it on prescription in the form of gels, creams and plasters.

There are no major safety concerns in applying capsaicin gel/cream. A review of capsaicin applied to the skin to treat chronic pain (not specifically related to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia) concluded that around one third of people experience a reaction around the area where the treatment is applied. It’s important to keep capsaicin away from your eyes, mouth and open wounds because it will cause irritation. There have been no reported drug interactions.

Fish oils

Fish oils are rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids, which have strong anti-inflammatory properties. Fish liver oil is also a rich source of vitamin A (a strong antioxidant) and vitamin D (which is important for maintaining healthy joints).

Evidence suggests that fish body oil can improve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Unconfirmed evidence also suggests a combination of fish body and liver oils might also be useful in the long term, particularly in reducing the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There isn’t enough evidence for the use of fish liver oil for osteoarthritis.

Omega-3 fatty acids also play a role in lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in your blood, so they can reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in people with inflammatory arthritis.

In the UK, dietary guidelines recommend eating two portions of fish a week, including one oily. Fish oil is considered to be well tolerated at this dose.

At the correct doses, side-effects are usually minor and uncommon.

Cannabis oil (CBD)

CBD is type of cannabinoid – a natural substance extracted from the cannabis plant and often mixed with an oil (such as coconut or hemp) to create CBD oil. It does not contain the psychoactive compound called tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC) which is associated with the feeling of being ‘high’.

Research in cannabinoids over the years suggests that they can be effective in treating certain types of chronic pain such as pain from nerve injury, but there is currently not enough evidence to support using cannabinoids in reducing musculoskeletal pain. We welcome further research to better understand its impact and are intently following developments internationally.

CBD oil can be legally bought as a food supplement in the UK from heath food shops and some pharmacies. However, CBD products are not licensed as a medicine for use in arthritis by MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Authority) or approved by NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) or the SMC (Scottish Medicines consortium).

We know anecdotally from some people with arthritis, that CBD has reduced their symptoms. If you’re considering using CBD to manage the pain of your arthritis, it’s important to remember it cannot replace your current medicines, and it may interact with them, so please do not stop/start taking anything without speaking to a healthcare professional.

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