Phosphorus Deficiency In Cannabis Plants
Phosphorus is a vital nutrient required by cannabis plants that fulfills many important biological functions. There are numerous different signs of deficiency symptoms to look out for when it comes to this nutrient.
HOW TO IDENTIFY?
One factor that growers must constantly be aware of when cultivating their plants is the risk of nutrient deficiency. Cannabis plants require an array of important nutrients that carry out vital biological functions throughout the grow cycle. If a certain key nutrient is missing during the vegetative or flowering stages, plants will start to display symptoms of deficiencies. These signs can help growers determine what is missing and therefore, what needs to be added to the soil before it is too late. One of these vital nutrients is phosphorus.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOSPHORUS
Phosphorus plays an important role in the health of all living organisms. Plants require this nutrient in order to achieve normal growth and to reach maturity. Phosphorus contributes to the DNA of the plant, as well as the RNA, which reads the genetic code in order to build proteins and other structures. Phosphorus is also vital in the creation of ATP, the unit of energy that plants use during photosynthesis. Phosphorus helps to stimulate root development, increase the strength of stems, improve flower formation and seed production, improve the quality of crops, boost resistance against diseases and support development throughout the overall growth cycle.
SYMPTOMS OF PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY
It is obvious that phosphorus deficiency could do some damage to the health of your plants and their potential yields. There are quite a few different symptoms to look out for that could signal phosphorus deficiency within your crop. First of all, the deficiency will usually start to affect the older leaves that are lower down on plants. These leaves may begin to exhibit a shiny appearance and turn to darker shades of green, blue and grey. Along with this change in colour, leaves will also start to develop purple and brown spots. Leaves will also become very dry and begin to thicken. The stems of the plant may also begin to turn bright red or purple.
SOLUTIONS TO PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY
One cause of a phosphorus deficiency is the pH of the roots. A root pH between 6.2 and 7 is best in order to maximise absorption of the nutrient. Therefore, it is ideal to strive for a soil pH between this range when deficiency symptoms manifest. This can be achieved by using pH up and down products.
An organic fertiliser containing adequate amounts of each vital nutrient can also be used to ensure that your plants are receiving the proper levels of phosphorus that they require. Additionally, other sources of phosphorus can be added to the soil in order to maximise exposure. Good source of phosphorus include warm casting, fish meal, crab shell and soft rock phosphate. Overwatering and compact soil can also be causes of phosphorous deficiency. Be sure to water your plants correctly to avoid this.
Try to remain calm if you notice a phosphorus deficiency setting in. Panicking and adding far too much phosphorus back into the soil could prevent your plants from uptaking other nutrients and end up doing more harm than good.
Temperature is another detail to pay attention to in order to achieve optimum phosphorus levels. Lower and colder temperatures can make it more difficult for your cannabis crop to absorb adequate levels of the nutrient. Temperatures that drop below 15 degrees Celsius may start to cause negative effects.
If your plants have fallen victim to phosphorus deficiency symptoms, you will notice a recovery stage take place if you take the right steps to restore the health of your plants. The spread of brown spots, red and purple stems and other symptoms will stop effecting new leaves. Don’t worry if old leaves do not recover, as this is normal.
Phosphorus plays many vital roles within cannabis plants and is needed in order to build proteins, provide energy and for normal growth.
Problem: A cannabis phosphorus deficiency generally appears on leaves from the lower/older parts of the plant. The lower leaves may turn dark green or yellow, and start getting spots or big splotches that look brown, bronze or even a little blue. The leaves may thicken and curl, and the affected leaves feel stiff. Sometimes the stems of the plant turn bright red or purple, but not always.
Sometimes accompanied by a Calcium deficiency, as Phosphorus and Calcium interact with each other in the plant.
A cannabis phosphorus deficiency usually appears with some or all of the following symptoms:
- tends to affect the lower and older leaves of the plant
- sometimes a phosphorus deficiency is accompanied by bright red stems (though not always), though if you have red stems but no other symptoms, it’s typically not something to worry about
- leaves darken (turning a dark green, blue or grayish color) and may appear shiny
- leaves may start turning yellow in places if the phosphorus deficiency is left untreated, or if the deficiency is combined with other nutrients deficiencies and/or pH problems. However, yellow leaves is typically not associated with the beginning of a phosphorus deficiency.
- leaves get bronze, purple or brown spots and splotches
- leaves thicken and may feel dry or stiff
- stems sometimes turn bright red or purple, but not always
- sometimes accompanied by a Calcium deficiency, as Phosphorus and Calcium interact with each other inside the plant
- this deficiency is more common after buds start forming, when the plant is using a lot of Phosphorus
Phosphorus deficiencies in the vegetative stage usually appear at the bottom of the plant on some of the oldest leaves, and will progressively climb up the plant if left unchecked.
The progression of a cannabis phosphorus deficiency
A phosphorus deficiency tends to be more common after plants start making buds in the flowering stage. Cannabis plants tend to love phosphorus in the flowering/budding stage and it is unlikely for a cannabis plant to get too much phosphorus using standard nutrients formulated for a flowering plant like cannabis. Nearly all flowering nutrients will come with an abundance of phosphorus for your plants. So if you’re seeing a cannabis phosphorus deficiency while using standard cannabis nutrients, chances are you actually have a root pH problem (explained below in the solution section)!
Phosphorus (P) is used by your cannabis plant in all phases of growth. It is one of the 3 major nutrients (N-P-K) listed on the front of most nutrient bottles, and phosphorus will be represented by the second number that appears.
When there is a phosphorus deficiency, the lower (oldest) leaves turn dark green. Leaves occasionally get a bluish or bronze tinge, and may thicken or curl downward before exhibiting dark gray, bronze or purplish splotches. Sometimes the stems of the affected leaves will turn bright red or purplish, usually starting from underneath.
It’s common to see a Phosphorus deficiency accompanied by the symptoms of a Calcium deficiency, as those nutrients interact with each other in the plant.
Sometimes you will get a cannabis phosphorus deficiency, and the stems do not appear red or purple at all, or the coloring may not be pronounced.
The leaf below was at the bottom of the plant and turned dark green and shiny, with a bluish tinge. Cannabis phosphorus deficiencies usually appear on the lower/older parts of the plant. The leaf then started showing the spots of a phosphorus deficiency where it was being touched by light (the parts of the leaf working hardest). The leaf began to curl downwards and turn yellow.
Notice that the stems or veins never turned red or purple on this leaf, except for some parts that were actually affected by the phosphorus deficiency.
A common symptom of a cannabis phosphorus deficiency is bright red or purple stems, though it doesn’t appear on all affected plants. Red stems can also be caused by direct light exposure (like a “tan”)
Another example of bright red stems that may be the result of a Phosphorus deficiency, or possibly direct light exposure.
It’s important to remember that some cannabis strains naturally grow with red or purple stems even when all their nutrient needs are being fulfilled, so red or purple stems is not a symptom to worry about on its own.
Do not mistake natural reddish-purple colored stems for a phosphorous deficiency!
When you notice that stems are turning red or purple starting from underneath, it may be a sign of a phosphorus deficiency only if accompanied by other symptoms. If the only symptom shown by your plant is red or purple stems, and you are not seeing any other signs of splotches or unhealthy leaves, the red or purple stems are likely caused by the genetics of your plant. If that’s the case, you have nothing to worry about.
Phosphorus is used heavily by cannabis plants in the flowering phase to produce buds, and is a crucial component of photosynthesis (turning light into energy for the plant).
Some strains of cannabis use much more phosphorus than others, or be more susceptible to a phosphorus deficiency, and you may have many plants in the exact same setup with only some of the plants showing signs of a phosphorus deficiency.
Solution For Cannabis Phosphorus Deficiency
1.) Adjust pH to Correct Range
Your cannabis plant may show signs of a phosphorus deficiency if the pH at the roots is not in the right range. That is because when the pH of your root zone is off, your cannabis cannot properly absorb phosphorus through its roots. Therefore the first step is to ensure that you have the correct pH for your growth medium. Learn more about pH and cannabis.
Phosphorus is best absorbed by cannabis in soil at a root pH of 6.2 – 7.0. Phosphorus is best absorbed by cannabis in hydro at a root pH of 5.5 – 6.2. If you believe you have a cannabis phosphorus deficiency, it’s important to check the pH of your root zone to make sure the deficiency isn’t caused by the pH being too high or too low.
If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a phosphorus deficiency, flush your system with clean, pH’d water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes phosphorus. This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of phosphorus and help restore pH to the proper levels.
- In soil, phosphorus is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.2 – 7.0 pH range (in soil, it’s generally recommended to keep the pH between 6.0 – 7.0, but phosphorus specifically tends to be best absorbed above 6.2 and below 7.0)
- In hydro, phosphorus is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 – 6.2 pH range (in hydro, it’s generally recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 – 6.5, but phosphorus specifically tends to be best absorbed below 6.2)
2.) Take Good Care of the Roots
Wet, compact soil or overwatering can trigger a phosphorus deficiency to appear even when all other factors are perfect. So make sure you water your plants properly every time to help prevent a phosphorus deficiency.
3.) Provide the Right Temperature
Cooler temperatures lower than 60°F (15°C), as well as large temperature swings, can make it harder for the plant to absorb phosphorus. Cannabis plants are therefore more likely to show signs of a phosphorus deficiency when the temperature drops too low, or if they go through a cold spell.
Cannabis likes a comfortable room temperature (they like about the same temperatures as we do).
4.) Give the Right Nutrients
Most growers have actually already given plenty of phophorus to their cannabis plants since it is found abundantly in quality soil and cannabis-friendly nutrients. However, even if you are giving phosphorus, it’s important to give your cannabis the right ratio of nutrients.
An excess of Fe and Zn may cause the symptoms of a phosphorus deficiency by preventing the plant from being able to absorb phosphorus properly. If you believe there may be a buildup of nutrient salts in your growing medium (or if you are growing in hydro and have not recently flushed or changed your reservoir) you should make sure it’s not an excess of other nutrients that is actually causing the phosphorus deficiency to appear. Flush your plant thoroughly with properly pH’ed water containing a regular dose of cannabis nutrients including phosphorus, or completely change your reservoir if you believe that an excess of nutrient salts may be causing the phosphorus deficiency.
Sources of phosphorus:
If you’ve tried everything else, then you may try adding a higher percentage of phosphorus to your feeding schedule and see if that helps clear up the problem for your plant. Cannabis plants love phosphorus, and therefore it is unlikely that you will give your cannabis too much phosphorus.
Most nutrient systems that are formulated for a plant like cannabis will carry and abundance of phosphorus, especially in budding/flowering formulas, so it is unlikely that you will see signs of a phosphorus deficiency before other nutrient problems when using nutrient systems formulated for cannabis (as long as you keep your root pH in the correct range and prevent the plants from getting cold or being overwatered). If you’ve got very high powered lights, or if your plants are growing in direct sunlight, they may be going through a lot more phosphorus in the flowering stage than average and may need you to provide extra phosphorus to make sure buds get as big as they could be.
Just remember that if there’s no actual phosphorus deficiency currently appearing on your cannabis plant, adding more phosphorus is probbaly not going to help plants grow better or make bigger buds – in fact adding too much phosphorus may actually hurt your plants by preventing the uptake of other nutrients! While it’s difficult to overdose your plants on phosphorus, adding too much compared to other nutrients will often cause other strange & unexpected deficiencies to appear.
5.) Take Good Care of the Roots
Phosphorus deficiencies can show up with the plant is having root problems or if the plant is overwatered, even if the pH is right and the phosphorus is there. Proper watering practices help plants grow healthy and avoid a host of problems!
6.) Watch for Recovery
After going through all the above steps, watch to make sure that the phosphorus deficiency starts to clear up within a few days to a week or so. After a phosphorus deficiency is cleared up, the problem (brown spots, unhealthy lower leaves, red/purple stems, etc) will stop appearing on new leaves, usually within a week.
Please note that leaves which have been damaged by a phosphorus deficiency will probably never recover or turn green, so you want to pay attention to other leaves for signs of recovery.
If you cannot get rid of your phosphorus deficiency, please consult our 7-Step Cure to 99% of Cannabis Growing Problems
- Bronze or brown patches
- Brown or slimy roots
- Brown or yellow leaf tips/edges
- Buds dying
- Buds look odd
- Bugs are visible
- Curling or clawing leaves
- Dark leaves
- Drooping plant
- Holes in leaves
- Mold or powder
- Pink or purple on leaves
- Red stems
- Shiny or smooth leaves
- Spots or markings
- Twisted growth
- Wilting leaves
- Yellow between leaf veins
- Yellow leaves
This page is part of our Plant Doctor series. You can use our tool to filter by symptom and help diagnose your plant.
Phosphorus deficiencies cause dark splotches on leaves and can appear at the bottom of the plant on some of the oldest leaves. Learn to spot & fix the issue.